Chapter 1 is a prologue, or overview, of the message presented in the entire book of Isaiah.1 Here can be seen elements of Israel’s apostate, rebellious, and corrupt state, with only a very small remnant remaining faithful. The Lord rejects Israel’s sacrifices and feasts because they are practiced unworthily. Similarly, the Lord rejects the sacrifices, observances and ordinances of his people of all ages when performed unworthily. The Lord calls upon Israel to repent and work righteousness; if they do, the Lord promises remission of sins and forgiveness. Finally, the Lord promises that Zion will be redeemed in the day of restoration, which will be accompanied by destruction of the wicked by fire.

Nephi begins his lengthy quote from Isaiah with Chapter 2.2 The reason for his not quoting Chapter 1 may have been that this chapter is a prologue; however, Nephi does not state the reasons for his selection of portions of Isaiah.

Verse 1 attests that Isaiah was shown a vision: “The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, king of Judah.” Note that the vision concerned what should befall Judah and Jerusalem and that it was seen over a period of many years, as represented by the reigns of the four kings cited. Isaiah is given detailed instructions, which he records in Chapter 6, on how to present the vision.3 Because of apostasy and wickedness among his people Isaiah encoded his prophecies so that only those with sufficient spiritual insight could understand. This encoding prevented the unworthy from receiving more than they could comprehend, which would subject them to the “greater condemnation.”4

Modern-day revelation further attests to the veracity of Isaiah’s mission and work. Joseph F. Smith wrote of a vision he received 3 October, 1918 in which he was shown the spirit world. He saw many of the “great and mighty ones,” including ancient prophets who were teaching the gospel to the spirits of those who had once lived upon the earth. He states: “And Isaiah, who declared by prophecy that the Redeemer was anointed to bind up the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that were bound, [was] also there.”5

In verse 2, Isaiah proclaims: “Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth: for the LORD hath spoken.” This means that everyone on earth is to hear these words;6 a witness of them would be recorded in heaven. “Heaven and earth” is a euphemism meaning “everybody.” The words spoken by the Lord, to be heard by all, follow: “I have nourished and brought up children and they have rebelled against me.” The Lord’s words are a lawsuit, comprising verses 2 through 4, testifying of the unfaithfulness of the children of Israel.

Doctrine and Covenants Section 76—a great vision in which Joseph Smith and an associate, Sidney Rigdon, were shown the world of spirits, resurrection, judgment and three degrees of glory to be inherited by God’s children—begins with words similar to those of Isaiah in verse 2: “Hear, O ye heavens, and give ear, O earth, and rejoice ye inhabitants thereof, for the Lord is God, and beside him there is no Savior. Great is his wisdom, marvelous are his ways, and the extent of his doings none can find out.”7 Greater detail provided by modern revelation confirms Isaiah’s meaning.

Compare also the Lord’s latter-day call to listen to and obey His words, as recorded in the beginning verses of Doctrine and Covenants:

Hearken, O ye people of my church, saith the voice of him who dwells on high, and whose eyes are upon all men; yea, verily I say: Hearken ye people from afar; and ye that are upon the islands of the sea, listen together.

For verily the voice of the Lord is unto all men, and there is none to escape; and there is no eye that shall not see, neither ear that shall not hear, neither heart that shall not be penetrated.8

The voice of the Lord, given through prophets in all ages of the world, is for every member of the human family everywhere. Eventually all will be given the opportunity to hear and understand, and will be held accountable for obeying the Lord.

In the King James Bible, the Hebrew Yahovah,9 or YHWH, meaning “Jehovah,” is translated “the LORD” (in all caps) except for two instances in Isaiah where it is rendered “Jehovah,”10 to avoid the too-frequent use of the name of Deity.11 “Lord,” in which only the initial letter is capitalized, typically is translated from the Hebrew adonay,12 meaning “Lord” or “Master,” connoting the human rather than the divine.

Verse 3 contains two sets of parallel statements: “The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master’s crib,” and “but Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider.” From the first set we are reminded that even domestic animals demonstrate loyalty to their masters, unlike the Lord’s chosen people. In the second set, “Israel” is equivalent to “my people,” and “doth not consider” is equivalent to “doth not know.” The original Hebrew meaning translated as “crib” is “manger,”13 providing powerful insight into the Master’s identity—He who would be “laid in a manger.”14

Verse 3 illustrates the profound difference between ignorant sin and dwindling in unbelief. Although Israel may be the Lord’s covenant people, when they do not think about, study or obey the law—or the gospel, to apply an equivalent New Testament term—even that knowledge which they have is soon lost. The Spirit withdraws, leaving them spiritually dead. Their one‑time status as children of the covenant is no protection from the consequences of their sins. John the Baptist chastised the Pharisees and the Sadducees: “And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.”15

Verse 4 describes the sinful, corrupt state of Israel, both individually and as a nation: “Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evildoers, children that are corrupters: they have forsaken the LORD, they have provoked the Holy One of Israel unto anger, they are gone away backward.” Their corruption persists for multiple generations; the Lord is angry with them and withholds blessings.

Verses 5 and 6 describe spiritual disease, using physical ailments metaphorically. Verse 5 begins: “Why should ye be stricken any more? Ye will revolt more and more: the whole head is sick, and the whole heart faint.” The people’s thoughts and emotions—denoted by the head and the heart—are turned entirely toward iniquity. Matthew in the New Testament cites this passage as being fulfilled by events in the life of Jesus Christ;16 the people among whom Christ ministered were spiritually sick, matching Isaiah’s description.

Verse 6 continues the metaphor: “From the sole of the foot even unto the head there is no soundness in it; but wounds, and bruises, and putrifying sores: they have not been closed, neither bound up, neither mollified with ointment.” The disease is serious, affecting the entire body. No healing treatment—metaphorically, the Atonement—has been applied.

Verse 7 describes the consequences to a nation when the individuals who comprise it are pervasively corrupt, forsaking the blessings and the protection of the Lord: “Your country is desolate, your cities are burned with fire; your land, strangers devour it in your presence, and it is desolate, as overthrown by strangers.” Because of wickedness, the Lord’s protection is withdrawn and speedy destruction ensues. Cities are burned with fire; crops and natural resources are seized and consumed by invaders.17

In verses 8 and 9, only a small remnant of the righteous remain among the people. Verse 8 begins: “And the daughter of Zion is left as a cottage in a vineyard, as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers, as a besieged city.” The inhabitants of Jerusalem are decimated; the survivors are few, similar in number to the occupants of a hut in a vineyard used by harvesters during harvest time.

Verse 8 contains a chiasm:

A: (8) And the daughter of Zion
B: is left as a cottage in a vineyard,
B: as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers,
A: as a besieged city.

In this chiasm Isaiah establishes “daughter of Zion” as a poetic synonym for Jerusalem, or the “besieged city,” which he uses repeatedly throughout his work.18 Survivors of the destruction are few, comparable in number to the occupants of a hut in a vineyard.

Verse 9 continues the lament: “Except the LORD of hosts had left unto us a very small remnant, we should have been as Sodom, and we should have been like unto Gomorrah.” Except for a small number of righteous who would survive, the destruction would be total—like that of Sodom and Gomorrah,19 two cities that were totally destroyed because of their wickedness.

Paul quotes verse 9: “And as Esaias [Isaiah] said before, Except the Lord of Sabaoth had left us a seed, we had been as Sodoma, and been made like unto Gomorrha.”20 “Seed” refers to a small number of survivors from which would grow a great nation again, after many generations.

In verse 10, Isaiah mockingly refers to the rulers of wicked Jerusalem as the rulers of Sodom, and its wicked inhabitants as the people of Gomorrah: “Hear the word of the LORD, ye rulers of Sodom; give ear unto the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah.” Sodom and Gomorrah are types for wickedness and total destruction, to be recurrently fulfilled.

Verses 11 through 20 are a classic lawsuit. In verse 11, the Lord condemns rituals practiced by the people of Jerusalem because they are practiced unworthily and their hypocrisy is abhorrent to Him: “To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? Saith the LORD: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks or of lambs, or of he goats.”

Verse 12 continues the lawsuit: “When ye come to appear before me, who hath required this at your hand, to tread my courts?” Unworthy entry into the Lord’s holy temple—to “tread my courts”—is serious sin.

In verse 13, the Lord demands: “Bring no more vain oblations; incense is an abomination unto me; the new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with; it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting.” “Away with” is an archaic English term, translated from a Hebrew word meaning “endure.”21

Verse 14 continues: “Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul hateth: they are a trouble unto me; I am weary to bear them.”  Because of hypocrisy, the Lord rejects the assemblies and feasts of His people and will no more grant forgiveness. In like manner, the Lord rejects the offerings and observances of His people of all ages when performed unworthily.

Verses 13 and 14 contain a chiasm:

A: (13) Bring no more vain oblations;
B: incense is an abomination unto me;
C: the new moons and sabbaths,
D: the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with;
D: it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting.
C: (14) Your new moons and your appointed feasts
B: my soul hateth:
A: they are a trouble unto me; I am weary to bear them.

The Lord rejects Israel’s oblations, appointed feasts, solemn assemblies and celebrations because the people’s gross iniquity makes these observances abominable in His sight. The Lord’s demand to “bring no more vain oblations” is complemented by “they are a trouble unto me; I am weary to bear them.”

In verse 15 the Lord declares that He will not hear their prayers: “And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide mine eyes from you: yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear: your hands are full of blood.” The Great Isaiah Scroll—one of the Dead Sea Scrolls—adds a parallel phrase at the end of the verse: “your fingers with iniquity.”22 “Blood” refers to the effects of sin in the lives of the people, here emphasizing the most serious, the shedding of innocent blood.23

Verse 15 contains a chiasm:

A: (15) And when ye spread forth your hands,
B: I will hide mine eyes from you:
B: yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear:
A: your hands are full of blood.

Because of their dreadful sins, the Lord will not hear the prayers of the people nor look upon them in mercy.

In verses 16 and 17 the Lord extends the opportunity for repentance and forgiveness. Verse 16 begins: “Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings from before mine eyes; cease to do evil.” As much as the sinner wishes his wickedness were secret, all our doings are seen by the Lord, with nothing concealed. These four parallel statements, all with similar meaning, are given for emphasis—visualize Isaiah underscoring four times. “Wash you, make you clean” implies the ordinance of baptism.24

Verses 15 and 16 contain a chiasm that overlaps that of verse 15:

(15) And when ye spread forth your hands,
A: I will hide mine eyes from you:
B: yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear: your hands are full of blood.
C: (16) Wash you,
C: make you clean;
B: put away the evil of your doings
A: from before mine eyes; cease to do evil.

This chiasm centers on a plea for the people to repent and become clean before the Lord. Until they do so, the Lord will not look upon them in mercy nor hear their prayers. Because of  the overlapping chiasms in these verses, both “your hands” and “your hands are full of blood” in verse 15 are equivalent to “the evil of your doings” in verse 16.

Verse 17 continues: “Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.” Note here the great extent to which the Lord defines righteousness as social justice and how much He disdains conformity with rules, ceremony, and ritual as a substitute for genuine righteousness. “Judgment” and “judge,” as used here, imply social justice.25

The care of orphans and widows is an important commandment given by the Lord in all ages. To Moses He declared: “He [the Lord] doth execute the judgment of the fatherless and widow, and loveth the stranger, in giving him food and raiment.”26 James attests: “Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world.”27

In verse 18 the Lord states the purpose for the Atonement in one of the Old Testament’s most striking and frequently‑quoted passages: “Come now, and let us reason together, saith the LORD: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.” The color scarlet—red or crimson—here symbolizes the most serious of sins, the taking of innocent life. The color white, represented in this verse by snow or wool, symbolizes purity. The Lord, through the Atonement, “has provided the way whereby our spiritual sicknesses can be healed.”28 Words from the hymn “Gently Raise the Sacred Strain” express words and meaning from verse 18: “Tho your sins be crimson red, Oh, repent, and he’ll forgive.”29

President Gordon B. Hinckley declared:

Repentance is one of the first principles of the gospel. Forgiveness is a mark of divinity. There is hope for you. Your lives are ahead, and they can be filled with happiness, even though the past may have been marred by sin. This is a work of saving and assisting people with their problems. This is the purpose of the gospel.30

There are two kinds of righteousness for which we are personally responsible, both delineated repeatedly by Isaiah. One is personal righteousness; the other is collective—or national— righteousness. We are familiar with the ways we attain personal righteousness: Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ; repentance; baptism by immersion for the remission of sins; and receiving the Holy Ghost through the laying on of hands.31 Repentance and purification, however, are not a one‑time‑only event in our lives. We must go through this four‑step process continually, substituting the ordinance of the Sacrament by which we renew our baptismal covenants, and then re‑inviting the Holy Spirit back into our lives. After this, we should do everything we can to promote good around us including keeping the Lord’s commandments, properly caring for, raising, and teaching our children, and fulfilling assignments given to us through the Lord’s authority. National righteousness extends from the majority being personally righteous, together with leaders who cherish truth and righteousness.

In verse 19 the Lord promises the fruits of repentance and subsequent righteousness: “If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land.” The Lord’s blessings, including prosperity and national security, are contingent upon individual and collective righteousness.

Elder Boyd K. Packer explained that the Lord’s gift of forgiveness requires our obedience:

The gospel teaches us that relief from torment and guilt can be earned through repentance. Save for those few who defect to perdition after having known a fulness, there is no habit, no addiction, no rebellion, no transgression, no offense exempted from the promise of complete forgiveness.32

In verse 20 the Lord promises the inescapable result of continued iniquity: “But if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.” War and destruction await the nation that rejects the Lord.

Verses 21 through 23 are a prophetic lament. Verse 21 begins: “How is the faithful city become an harlot! It was full of judgment; righteousness lodged in it; but now murderers.” Isaiah sorrows over the wickedness of Jerusalem. “Judgment” as used here means “fairness” or “justice.”33

Verse 22 continues the lament: “Thy silver is become dross, thy wine mixed with water.” “Dross” means slag or waste, a metallurgical term. Metaphorically, substituting dross for silver and adding water to wine symbolize cheating, dishonesty, and corruption.

Verse 23 summarizes the accusation: “Thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves: every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards: they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.” “Gifts” is translated from a Hebrew word meaning “bribes.”34 The leaders of the people commit great sin in lying, bribery, associating with thieves and ignoring the plight of widows and orphans.

Verses 17 through 23 contain a chiasm:

A: (17) Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow. (18) Come now, and let us reason together, saith the LORD: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.
B: (19) If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land:
C: (20) But if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.
D: (21) How is the faithful city becomes an harlot!
E: It was full of judgment;
E: righteousness lodged in it;
D: but now murderers. (22) Thy silver is become dross, thy wine mixed with water:
C: (23) Thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves:
B: every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards:
A: they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.

The introductory statements, “Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow” in verse 17 and “judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them” in verse 23 are antithetics in which Isaiah contrasts the people’s actual behavior with conduct that the Lord would approve. The princes’ receiving of gifts—meaning bribes—is the opposite of their being willing and obedient. The focus of this chiasm establishes Israel’s past righteousness as the goal to be achieved, whereas the introductory and supporting statements describe the obstacles that must be overcome in achieving the goal.

In verse 24, the Lord declares: “Therefore saith the Lord, the LORD of hosts, the mighty One of Israel, Ah, I will ease me of mine adversaries, and avenge me of mine enemies.” In the beginning phrase, note that “Lord” is first rendered in lower case except for the initial capital L, then in all caps. “Lord” means “master, owner or ruler; one who has dominion” whereas “the LORD” (in all caps) is translated from the original Hebrew Yahovah or YHWH, meaning “Jehovah.”35 The Lord Jehovah, the Mighty One of Israel, will avenge Himself of His adversaries and enemies—in particular, those who commit wrongs against His people.

Verse 25 declares: “And I will turn my hand upon thee, and purely purge away thy dross, and take away all thy tin.” Metallurgy, the refining of metals, is used here as a metaphor for the cleansing of blatant and hidden sin. Tin added to gold as an alloy diminishes its worth, or value in carats, without significantly altering its appearance. The heat of the refiner’s fire—to continue the metaphor—represents trials, tribulations and destructions imposed by the Lord for the purpose of cleansing.36 “Turn my hand” is translated from a Hebrew word meaning “repeatedly return.”37

In verse 26, in the latter days when Israel is restored, the Lord declares: “And I will restore thy judges as at the first, and thy counselors as at the beginning: afterward thou shalt be called, The city of righteousness, the faithful city.” Compare the words of the hymn, “The Spirit of God Like a Fire is Burning:”

The Lord is extending the Saints’ understanding,
Restoring their judges and all as at first.
The knowledge and power of God are expanding,
The veil o’er the earth is beginning to burst.38

Verse 27 proclaims: “Zion shall be redeemed with judgment, and her converts with righteousness.” Only through personal and collective righteousness will Zion be redeemed. The primary meaning of “Zion” here is a place of latter-day spiritual gathering; other meanings in other layers of understanding may also be discerned.39 “Judgment,” as used here, means “fairness” or “justice.”40

Verse 28 continues: “And the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners shall be together, and they that forsake the LORD shall be consumed.” This statement foreshadows the great destructions by fire that await the wicked in the latter days, before the Second Coming of the Lord.41

Verses 20 through 28 contain a chiasm:

A: (20) But if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.
B: (21) How is the faithful city become an harlot!
C: It was full of judgment; righteousness lodged in it; but now murderers.
D: (22) Thy silver is become dross, thy wine mixed with water:
E:   (23) Thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves: every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards: they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.
F:   (24) Therefore saith the Lord, the LORD of hosts,
F:   the mighty one of Israel,
E:   Ah, I will ease me of mine adversaries, and avenge me of mine enemies:
D: (25) And I will turn my hand upon thee, and purely purge away thy dross, and take away all thy tin:
C: (26) And I will restore thy judges as at the first, and thy counselors as at the beginning:
B: afterward thou shalt be called, The city of righteousness, the faithful city. (27) Zion shall be redeemed with judgment, and her converts with righteousness.
A: (28) And the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners shall be together, and they that forsake the LORD shall be consumed.

The Lord—the focal point of this chiasm —will destroy, purge, and avenge as described in the supporting statements. Note that the rebellious princes are chiastically identified as adversaries and enemies of the Lord. Diluting wine with water is equivalent to alloying gold with tin; both are symbolic of hidden sin. The redemption of Zion will involve restoration of judges and counselors “as at the first,” before Israel began to adopt the ways and beliefs of their idolatrous neighbors.

Because the chiasm of verses 17 through 23 overlaps the chiasm of verses 20 through 28, “judge the fatherless,” “judge not the fatherless,” and “I will ease me of mine adversaries, and avenge me of mine enemies” in verse 24 all are structurally comparable. Similarly, “but if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword,” “the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners shall be together,” and “thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves” are also comparable. These chiasms together paint a picture of pervasive wickedness and its unavoidable consequences.

Verse 29 states: “For they shall be ashamed of the oaks which ye have desired, and ye shall be confounded for the gardens that ye have chosen.” This statement refers to the idolatrous practices of apostate Israel, adopted from their pagan neighbors. “Oaks” and “gardens” as used here mean “terebinth trees and gardens used in idol worship.”42 Terebinth is a species of fragrant sumac tree. The form of idolatry alluded to in this verse centered upon ceremonial illicit sex. Elsewhere in the Old Testament this idolatrous practice is euphemistically called “the groves,” meaning gardens with shade trees prepared as a pleasant setting for such acts.43 The Lord here condemns all sexual sin, whether or not it is part of idolatrous worship.

In verse 30, the depth of shame felt by those caught up in the sin of moral impurity is likened to a tree whose leaves dry up or a garden that has not been watered: “For ye shall be as an oak whose leaf fadeth and as a garden that hath no water.” Life-giving water symbolizes the redeeming power of the Atonement.

But in verse 31, the withering leaves of the powerful oaks and the waterless gardens only serve to expedite the unquenchable destructive burning: “And the strong shall be as tow, and the maker of it as a spark, and they shall both burn together, and none shall quench them.” “Tow” means coarse fiber or hemp, a ready fuel for destructive fire. The destruction foretold will transpire at the time of the Lord’s Second Coming, but it is typical of destruction of wicked nations throughout the ages.

In describing the martyrdom of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, John Taylor—who was severely wounded by the murderous mob—alluded to this destruction by fire: “[I]f the fire can scathe a green tree for the glory of God, how easy it will burn up the dry trees to purify the vineyard of corruption.”44

Verses 28 through 31 contain a chiasm:

A: (28) And the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners shall be together, and they that forsake the LORD shall be consumed.
B: (29) For they shall be ashamed of the oaks which ye have desired, and ye shall be confounded for the gardens that ye have chosen.
B: (30) For ye shall be as an oak whose leaf fadeth and as a garden that hath no water.
A: (31) And the strong shall be as tow, and the maker of it as a spark, and they shall both burn together, and none shall quench them.

Because of idolatry that the people have desired in place of devotion to the Lord, they will be destroyed by fire.


Notes:

1. Chapters 2 through 39 depict Israel in her homeland in a state of wickedness; chapters 40 through 54 describe Israel in exile in the world at large, interacting with people and events; and chapters 55 through 66 describe Israel’s glorious return to her homeland following repentance and cleansing.
2. 2 Nephi chapters 12 through 24.
3. Isaiah 6:9‑10.
4. See Doctrine and Covenants 82:3 and Luke 12:48.
5. Doctrine and Covenants 138:38, 42.
6. William Grant Bangerter, “The Voice of the Lord Is unto All People,” Ensign, Nov. 1979, p. 9.
7. Doctrine and Covenants 76:1-2.
8. Doctrine and Covenants 1:1-2.
9. F. Brown, S. Driver, and C. Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon: Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 01961-3473, 1996, Strong’s No. 3068, p. 217-218.
10. Isaiah 12:2; Isaiah 26:4.
11. See Doctrine and Covenants 107:4.
12. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 136, p. 10.
13. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 18, p. 7.
14. See Luke 2:7, 12, 16.
15. Matthew 3:9.
16. See Matthew 8:17.
17. See Isaiah 1:28; 5:24; 9:5, 18-19 and pertinent commentary.
18. See 2 Kings 19:21, 31; Psalms 9:14; 51:18; Isaiah 10:32; 16:1; 37:22; 52:2; 62:11.
19. See Genesis 19:24-25.
20. Romans 9:29.
21. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 3201, p. 407.
22. Donald W. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 2001, p. 40.
23. See Isaiah 59:3 and pertinent commentary.
24. Victor L. Ludlow, Isaiah: Prophet, Seer, and Poet: Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1982, p. 77.
25. See Isaiah 1:17, footnote 17c; See Isaiah 5:7; 42:4; 59:8; 59:15.
26. Deuteronomy 10:18.
27. James 1:27.
28. Vaughn J. Featherstone, “Forgive Them, I Pray Thee,” Ensign, Nov. 1980, p. 29.
29. Hymns of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1985, Hymn no. 146, “Gently Raise the Sacred Strain,” verse 4.
30. Gordon B. Hinckley, “Stand True and Faithful,” Ensign, May 1996, p. 91.
31. See Articles of Faith 1:4.
32. Boyd K. Packer, “The Brilliant Morning of Forgiveness,” Ensign, Nov. 1995, p. 18.
33. See Isaiah 1:21, 27; 5:16; 10:2; 16:3, 5; 28:6, 17; 30:18.
34. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 7810, p. 1005.
35. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 3068, p. 217-218.
36. See Malachi 3:2-3; Doctrine and Covenants 128:24.
37. See Isaiah 1:25, footnote 25a.
38. Hymns of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1985, Hymn no. 2, “The Spirit of God,” verse 2.
39. See Isaiah 3:16; 4:3-4; 8:18; 10:12, 24; 12:6; 51:3.
40. See Isaiah 1:27, footnote 27b. For references to other meanings of “judgment,” see verse 17.
41. See Isaiah 1:7, 4:4; 5:24; 9:5, 18-19; 10:16-18; 13:6-9; 24:6; 26:11; 27:11; 29:6; 30:27, 30, 33; 33:11-12; 34:9; 42:25; 43:2; 47:14; 64:1-2, 11; 66:15-16 and pertinent commentary.
42. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 352, p. 18.
43. See 1 Kings 14:23; 2 Kings 16:4; 17:10; 2 Chronicles 28:4; Jeremiah 2:20; 3:6, 13; Ezekiel 6:13; also Isaiah 17:8; 27:9; 57:5 and pertinent commentary.
44. Doctrine and Covenants 135:6.

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