In this chapter Isaiah foretells that because of their disobedience Judah and Jerusalem would be punished with famine, oppression, rudeness, poverty and strife among themselves. The Lord Jesus Christ pleads for and judges His people. The daughters of Zion, both ancient and modern, will be cursed and tormented for their worldliness. Nephi in the Book of Mormon quotes this chapter in its entirety—compare 2 Nephi 13.

This prophecy was fulfilled anciently with the destruction of Israel by Assyria and, later, that of Judah by Babylon. Government and religious leaders, soldiers, craftsmen, and teachers—mostly men—were taken captive or killed. A remaining small number of inhabitants, primarily women and children, were left destitute in the land. Famine, anarchy, and poverty followed; women and children were left as rulers.1 We in the latter days are warned that the Lord will not permit His people to prosper long in wickedness. The extremes of materialism, pride, and gross wickedness that we see in society today are precursors for the predicted judgment, destruction, and humiliation.

In verse 1 the Lord proclaims that He will cause severe famine to come upon Judah and Jerusalem: “For, behold, the Lord, the LORD of hosts, doth take away from Jerusalem and from Judah the stay and the staff, the whole stay of bread, and the whole stay of water.” The Book of Mormon renders “staff of bread.”2 Several historical famines fulfill this prophecy, including those of the seventh century B.C. and 700 A.D.3 Of great significance to us are foretold latter-day famines before the Second Coming of the Lord.4

It is the custom in many cultures that when a person is put in prison it is the responsibility of family and friends to provide food, water and clothing for him. Judah and Jerusalem are reminded by this analogy that they are just as dependent upon the Lord for the necessities of life as a prisoner is dependent upon those outside his cell to provide for him.

Again in this verse the phrase “the Lord, the LORD of hosts” is used.5 Here it denotes the Lord’s might and power as the commander of innumerable armies, and therefore certainly having power to control rain and harvest.

In verses 2 and 3, Isaiah describes all those who will be brought to their knees by the famine, sent because of their iniquity. Verse 2 declares: “The mighty man, and the man of war, the judge, and the prophet, and the prudent, and the ancient.” Note the inclusion here by Isaiah of “the prudent,” meaning prudent in their own eyes or according to the standards of the world. Obviously these are not prudent by the Lord’s standards or they would diligently serve Him and keep His commandments. Later, in Chapter 29, Isaiah refers again to the “prudent” regarding the coming forth of the Book of Mormon and the restoration of the gospel in the latter days, stating that “the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid” by this “marvelous work and a wonder.”6 Isaiah’s meaning is the same in both instances.

Verse 3 continues: “The captain of fifty, and the honourable man, and the counsellor, and the cunning artificer, and the eloquent orator.” All are alike unto God; all will be punished alike for their corruption.

Conditions described here by Isaiah in ancient Jerusalem—which resulted ultimately in the overthrow of the city and captivity of the people by a foreign power—are a type for conditions that will prevail in the latter days among the wicked.

As we are reminded by the prophet Amos, not all famines are of bread or water:

Behold, the days come, saith the Lord GOD, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the LORD: And they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east, they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the LORD, and shall not find it.7

Isaiah mentioning “the judge, and the prophet, and the prudent, and the ancient [meaning elder, or ecclesiastical authority]…and the honourable man, and the counsellor…and the eloquent orator” who engage in endeavors of mind, spirit and conscience that are heavily reliant upon obtaining the word of the Lord suggests a famine of hearing the word of the Lord, in addition to famines of bread and water. The Lord communicates with His people on condition of personal righteousness, through the Holy Ghost.8 A spiritual famine results from prevalent wickedness, not capricious action by the Lord.9

In verse 4, the Lord declares: “And I will give children to be their princes, and babes shall rule over them.” The Book of Mormon renders “And I will give children unto them to be their princes.”10 The young and inexperienced—or those with less than a mature understanding of God’s law, or moral imperatives—will be their leaders. We are reminded of chilling scenes such as occurred in Cambodia in the late 1970s where children wandered about searching for “enemies of the people.” By merely pointing out those who could read or had skills other than farming, these young children condemned them to summary execution at the hands of Pol Pot’s communist revolutionaries. We can expect more such atrocities in the future.

Verse 5 describes the chaotic consequences of rule by those ignorant of God’s law or lacking a mature moral foundation: “And the people shall be oppressed, every one by another, and every one by his neighbour: the child shall behave himself proudly against the ancient, and the base against the honourable.” Youth, not being taught the virtue of work or responsibility, look upon parents and society as obligated to satisfy every need. Our inner cities are plagued with rampant criminality, gang violence and terrorism. Anarchy now evident there may spread until it engulfs the whole land. Another fulfillment has been in communist uprisings worldwide, where peasants (the proletariat) are marshaled against those who own property (the bourgeoisie). Most of these conditions are brought on by unjust laws that undermine respect for law and order, the family unit, the work ethic, and life itself. Rudeness—”the child shall behave himself proudly against the ancient, and the base against the honourable”—prevails in our society.

In verses 6, 7, and 8 we are foretold more of the outcome of rule by those ignorant of God’s law. Verse 6 begins: “When a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father, saying, Thou hast clothing, be thou our ruler, and let this ruin be under thy hand.” The Book of Mormon renders “and will say…let not this ruin come under thy hand.”11

Verse 7 continues: “In that day shall he swear, saying, I will not be an healer; for in my house is neither bread nor clothing: make me not a ruler of the people.” Those capable of moral leadership withdraw or decline to serve so that they will not be blamed for the ruination brought on by pervasive wickedness, violence, and want. The Hebrew meaning is “I cannot bind up your wounds” (solve your problems).12

Verse 8 states: “For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen: because their tongue and their doings are against the LORD, to provoke the eyes of his glory.”13 The Book of Mormon renders “their doings have been against the Lord.”14 Isaiah summarizes the cause of this ruin—knowingly doing evil against the Lord, provoking His anger.

Verses 1 through 8 contain a chiasm:

A: (1) For behold, the Lord, the LORD of Hosts,
B: doth take away from Jerusalem, and from Judah, the stay and the staff,
C: the whole staff of bread, and the whole stay of water
D: (2) The mighty man, and the man of war, the judge, and the prophet, and the prudent, and the ancient; (3) The captain of fifty, and the honourable man, and the counsellor, and the cunning artificer, and the eloquent orator.
E: (4) And I will give children unto them to be their princes, and babes shall rule over them,
F: (5) And the people shall be oppressed every one by another,
F: and every one by his neighbour:
E: the child shall behave himself proudly against the ancient, and the base against the honorable.
D: (6) When a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father, and will say: Thou hast clothing, be thou our ruler, and let not this ruin come under thy hand:
C: (7) In that day shall he swear, saying: I will not be an healer; for in my house there is neither bread nor clothing; make me not a ruler of the people.
B: (8) For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen:
A: because their tongues and their doings have been against the LORD, to provoke the eyes of his glory.

This chiasm centers on oppression, every one by his neighbor. Reasons are given in the supporting statements—children behaving proudly against those deserving their respect and rulers of the people lacking mature moral judgment. In turn, these are the causes for the Lord to bring a famine upon the people. Calamity would fall upon Jerusalem because of the iniquity of everyone from children to rulers.

In verse 9, Isaiah describes overt immorality—the wicked declare their sins openly, even proudly, without shame: “The shew of their countenance doth witness against them; and they declare their sin as Sodom, they hide it not. Woe unto their soul! for they have rewarded evil unto themselves.” The Book of Mormon renders “…doth declare their sin to be even as Sodom, and they cannot hide it. Wo unto their souls….”15

The effects of sin can be seen in their faces, which testify against them. This immorality includes but is not limited to homosexuality. Just as those in ancient Sodom declared their sin openly and it became the predominant public discourse, so we see in our society. Homosexuality, adultery, fornication and corruption of all kinds are practiced openly. Books, movies, and television celebrate the commission of immoral acts without depicting any consequences, thus enticing the gullible or naïve to participate.

Elder Spencer V. Jones of the Seventy recounts an experience he shared with Elder Richard G. Scott:

[A]lways to our Heavenly Father and often to spiritually sensitive leaders, parents, and friends, our sins are glaringly apparent. While attending a youth fireside with Elder Richard G. Scott, I noticed five youths scattered among the congregation whose countenances or body language almost screamed that something was spiritually amiss in their lives. After the meeting, when I mentioned the five youths to Elder Scott, he simply replied, “there were eight.”16

Verses 8 and 9 contain a chiasm:

A: (8) For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen, because their tongues and their
doings have been against the LORD, to provoke the eyes of his glory.
B: (9) The show of their countenance doth witness against them,
C: and doth declare their sin to be even as Sodom,
C: and they cannot hide it.
B: Woe unto their souls!
A: for they have rewarded evil unto themselves.

Ruin is brought upon Judah and Jerusalem because the Lord is provoked to anger by the gross immorality of the people. “Ruined,” “fallen,” and “against the Lord” are equated with “evil.” Those who sin reap evil unto themselves, in consequence of their own choices. “Show of their countenance” complements “souls,” illustrating that people’s faces inescapably reflect the moral condition of the soul. “They cannot hide it” teaches that the condition of one’s soul cannot be hidden—least of all from God.

Verses 10 and 11 state an immutable law. Verse 10 declares: “Say ye to the righteous, that it shall be well with him: for they shall eat the fruit of their doings.” The Book of Mormon pluralizes: “Say unto the righteous that it is well with them…17 The righteous are blessed with the rewards of their actions.

Verse 11 contrasts: “Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill with him: for the reward of his hands shall be given him.” The Book of Mormon renders: “Woe unto the wicked, for they shall perish; for the reward of their hands shall be upon them.”18 The wicked will be cursed because of their actions whereas the righteous are blessed. In each case, the law of the harvest applies.19

Verses 9 through 11 contain a chiasm:

(9) The show of their countenance doth witness against them, and doth declare their sin to be even as Sodom, and they cannot hide it.
A: Woe unto their souls! for they have rewarded evil unto themselves.
B: (10) Say unto the righteous
C: that it is well with them;
D: for they shall eat the fruit of their doings.
C: (11) Woe
B: unto the wicked, for they shall perish;
A: for the reward of their hands shall be upon them.

Both righteousness and evil are rewarded in kind by the Lord. The righteous reap the blessings and benefits of their virtue, whereas the wicked cannot escape the evil consequences of their immorality. In this chiasm the well-being of the righteous is contrasted with woes declared upon the wicked; both the wicked and the righteous will “eat the fruit of their doings.”

Verse 12 carries the same meaning as verse 4: “As for my people, children are their oppressors, and women rule over them. O my people, they which lead thee cause thee to err, and destroy the way of thy paths.” The Book of Mormon substitutes and in place of the introductory “as for.”20 “The way of thy paths” means knowledge of the Plan of Salvation; the strait and narrow way to salvation would become twisted and corrupted by wicked rulers.21 “Children” characterizes political leaders lacking in mature moral judgment, whereas “women” characterizes ecclesiastical leaders lacking in priesthood authority—rather than playing down women’s capability to rule justly and effectively when called upon.

This description characterizes ancient Judah and Israel after the majority—particularly leaders and those with useful skills—were carried into captivity and men capable of resistance were killed, leaving mainly women and children destitute in the land. For us, it foretells conditions that will prevail at some point in the latter days.

Verse 13 establishes that the LORD—Jehovah, or Jesus Christ—will be the judge of Israel: “The LORD standeth up to plead, and standeth to judge the people.” During His mortal ministry the Lord Jesus Christ substantiated His role as judge: “For as the Father hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son [Jesus Christ] to have life in himself; And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.”22 The Lord will deliver justice to oppressed nations.

Verse 14 reciprocates, attesting that the Lord will judge the people’s oppressors: “The LORD will enter into judgment with the ancients of his people,” meaning ecclesiastical leaders as well as those having mature wisdom, “and the princes thereof,” meaning political leaders. “For ye have eaten up the vineyard; the spoil of the poor is in your houses.” Leaders of the people enriched themselves by depriving and persecuting the poor. “Judgment,” as applied in this verse, means “retribution,” or giving leaders what they deserve for their gross iniquity.23

Nephi, interpreting Isaiah’s prophecies concerning this corruption of political and ecclesiastical leaders, says:

Yea, and there shall be many which shall teach after this manner, false and vain and foolish doctrines, and shall be puffed up in their hearts, and shall seek deep to hide their counsels from the Lord; and their works shall be in the dark.
And the blood of the saints shall cry from the ground against them.
Yea, they have all gone out of the way; they have become corrupted.
Because of pride, and because of false teachers, and false doctrine, their churches have become corrupted, and their churches are lifted up; because of pride they are puffed up.
They rob the poor because of their fine sanctuaries; they rob the poor because of their fine clothing; and they persecute the meek and the poor in heart, because in their pride they are puffed up.
They wear stiff necks and high heads; yea, and because of pride, and wickedness, and abominations, and whoredoms, they have all gone astray save it be a few, who are the humble followers of Christ; nevertheless, they are led, that in many instances they do err because they are taught by the precepts of men.24

We witness such corruption to an extreme degree in our society today.

In verse 15, the Lord delivers a serious accusation: “What mean ye that ye beat my people to pieces, and grind the faces of the poor? saith the Lord GOD of hosts.” Again, His wrath is directed toward the ecclesiastical and political leaders who have enriched themselves at the expense of the poor.

Verses 12 through 15 contain a chiasm:

A: (12) And my people, children are their oppressors, and women rule over them.
B: O my people, they who lead thee cause thee to err and destroy the way of thy paths.
C: (13) The LORD standeth up to plead, and standeth to judge the people.
C: (14) The LORD will enter into judgment
B: with the ancients of his people and the princes thereof: for ye have eaten up the vineyard; and the spoil of the poor (is) in your houses.
A: (15) What mean ye? That ye beat my people to pieces, and grind the faces of the poor? saith the Lord GOD of Hosts.

The Lord will judge both the oppressed and the oppressor. Ecclesiastical and civil leaders alike have oppressed the poor for their own advantage; corrupt leaders cause the people to err, destroying the way of the Lord. As a consequence, children and women would rule over the people.

In verses 16 and 17, the Lord smites the daughters of Zion for their haughtiness. Verse 16 describes their wantonness: “Moreover the LORD saith, Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with stretched forth necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go, and making a tinkling with their feet—”

In verse 16 Zion has dual meanings—a place of latter-day spiritual gathering as well as a synonym for both ancient and latter-day Jerusalem.25 Isaiah’s prophetic accusation of worldliness applies equally to the Lord’s ancient and modern covenant people.

The Hebrew word Zion, which means “parched place,”26 has multiple layers of meaning in the scriptures.  During the time of David it was the name of a stronghold near Jerusalem;27 the Ark of the Covenant was brought from there to the temple at Jerusalem by Solomon.28  The temple mount in Jerusalem was also known as Mount Zion,29 and Zion was used by many scriptural writers as a poetic synonym for Jerusalem.30 Zion also refers to the latter-day spiritual gathering—restoration of the fulness of the gospel from heaven and establishment of a people who would abide by its principles.31  Zion, therefore, is a place where the pure in heart would dwell.32 This definition can be substituted in place of the word Zion to aid in understanding: “Because the daughters of the pure in heart are haughty….” In contrast, the latter-day Jerusalem signifies a place for the physical gathering of the returning tribes of Israel, whether at the original site of Jerusalem or another place.33 A “New Jerusalem” for the gathering of certain of the tribes would be established upon the American continent.34 The range of meanings for words such as “Zion” and “Jerusalem” provides a key to understanding hidden meanings and recurrent fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecies in various dispensations.

Regarding vanity, the Lord admonishes the Latter-day saints:

And your minds in times past have been darkened because of unbelief, and because you have treated lightly the things you have received—
Which vanity and unbelief have brought the whole church under condemnation.”35

Vanity afflicts modern Zion as well as ancient Israel.

Verse 17 describes the curse: “Therefore the Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, and the LORD will discover their secret parts.” “Uncover their secret parts” is a Hebrew idiom meaning “put them to shame.”36

In verses 18 through 23 ornaments, accessories, and items of clothing are mentioned. Footnote 18a says “Authorities do not always agree on the nature of the female ornaments listed….”37 The King James translation uses words with meanings from four hundred years ago, some of which are unfamiliar to modern readers. A comparison of these words with their definitions from the dictionary38 or a Hebrew lexicon39 may be helpful.

Verse 18 begins Isaiah’s list of feminine accessories: “In that day the Lord will take away the bravery of their tinkling ornaments about their feet, and their cauls, and their round tires like the moon—”
Tinkling ornaments about their feet: Anklets; ornamental chains worn around the ankle.40
Cauls: Headbands.41
Round tires like the moon: Crescents, or moon shapes, worn as ornaments.42

Verse 19 continues, listing more accessories to be worn by vain latter-day women: “The chains, and the bracelets, and the mufflers—”
Chains: Series of links, usually metal, worn as ornaments or insignia.43
Bracelets: Ornamental bands or chains worn around the wrist.44
Mufflers: Scarves worn around the neck.45

Verse 20 lists more vain items of clothing and ornaments: “The bonnets, and the ornaments of the legs, and the headbands, and the tablets, and the earrings—”
Bonnets: Cloth or straw hats tied under the chin and worn by women and children.46
Ornaments of the legs: Anklets or stepping chains.47 Stepping chains are intended to make a sound during walking or marching.
Headbands: Bands worn on or around the head.48
Tablets: Flat, shiny ornaments, or mirrors made of polished metal. 49
Earrings: Ornaments for the ear lobe.50

Verse 21 names items of jewelry: “The rings, and nose jewels—”
Rings: Circlets, usually of precious metal, worn on the finger.51
Nose jewels: Nose rings or precious stones, worn by women.52

Verse 22 describes more items of clothing and accessories: “The changeable suits of apparel, and the mantles, and the wimples, and the crisping pins—”
Changeable suits of apparel: Clothing or costumes worn for festivities. 53
Mantles: Overtunics or outer tunics.54 Tunics are simple slip-on outer garments with or without sleeves, knee-length or longer, and belted at the waist.55
Wimples: Translated from a Hebrew word meaning cloaks.56 Wimples are cloth coverings worn over the head and around the neck and chin, especially by women in the late medieval period and by some nuns.57
Crisping pins: Curlers; pins for curling the hair.58

Verse 23 completes the list: “The glasses, and the fine linen, and the hoods, and the vails.”
Glasses: Looking-glasses, or mirrors.59
Fine linen: Clothing worn as an undergarment or as a sole garment at night; made of fine or sheer linen fabric.60
Hoods: Flexible coverings for the head and neck.61
Vails: Lengths of cloth worn by women as covering for the head, shoulders and face.62

Verse 24 describes the outcome of the Lord’s wrath poured out upon the daughters of Zion: “And it shall come to pass, that instead of sweet smell there shall be stink; and instead of a girdle a rent; and instead of well set hair baldness; and instead of a stomacher a girding of sackcloth; and burning instead of beauty.” “Sweet smell” means perfume;63 “girdle” means belt; “rent” is translated from a Hebrew word meaning rope.64 Sackcloth was made of coarse hair or fiber from flax or hemp;65 wearing sackcloth was an outward sign of mourning or deep distress. “Burning” means branding or scarring.66 Anciently, it was the custom to mark slaves by branding. In modern times such branding is rare; Isaiah may have been shown the ever-more-common tattoos, seen on both men and women. The people, because of their iniquity, would be smitten, slain and sold into slavery.

Verses 25 and 26 describe the devastation that will fall upon Jerusalem of old and Zion in the latter days. Verse 25 declares: “Thy men shall fall by the sword, and thy mighty in the war.”

Verse 26 completes the prophecy: “And her gates shall lament and mourn; and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground.” Rather than sitting in splendor in a place of honor, Jerusalem’s throne would be removed—leaving only the ground to sit upon. This prophecy relates to the time when Jerusalem was destroyed in 587 B.C., and also to a time in the future when prideful conditions would exist among the women of Zion, who at that time will be subject to the consequences described. Who can argue with Isaiah’s vivid descriptions of our times and the behavior of prideful people in our society?

 


Notes:

1. Victor L. Ludlow, “Isaiah Chapter Review: 2 Nephi 13/Isaiah 3,” Book of Mormon Reference Companion: Dennis L. Largey, ed., Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, UT, 2003, p. 360-362.
2. 2 Nephi 13:1.
3. Victor L. Ludlow, Isaiah: Prophet, Seer, and Poet: Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1982, p. 101.
4. See Doctrine and Covenants 87:6; Joseph Smith—History 1:45.
5. See also Isaiah 1:24.
6. Isaiah 29:14.
7. Amos 8:11-12.
8. See 1 Nephi 17:45; Ephesians 4:19.
9. See 1 Chronicles 21:9-12.
10. 2 Nephi 13:4.
11. 2 Nephi 13:6.
12. F. Brown, S. Driver, and C. Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon: Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 01961-3473, 1996, Strong’s No. 2280, p. 289.
13. Verse 8 contains a chiasm recognized in the original Hebrew: Has stumbled/Jerusalem/Judah/has fallen. In Donald W. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 2001, p. 258.
14. 2 Nephi 13:8.
15. 2 Nephi 13:9.
16. Spencer V. Jones, “Overcoming the Stench of Sin,” Ensign, May 2003, p. 88
17. 2 Nephi 13:10.
18. 2 Nephi 13:11.
19. See Job 4:8; Hosea 10:12; Mosiah 7:30-31; Doctrine and Covenants 6:33.
20. 2 Nephi 13:12.
21. See Isaiah 8:11; 26:7-8; 28:7; 40:3 and pertinent commentary.
22. John 5:26-27.
23. See Isaiah 1:17; 4:4; 28:6; 34:5.
24. 2 Nephi 28:9-14.
25. See Isaiah 1:27; 4:3-4; 8:18; 10:12, 24; 12:6; 51:3.
26. F. Brown, S. Driver, and C. Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon: Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 01961-3473, 1996, 1216 p.; Strong’s No. 6726, p. 851.
27. See 2 Samuel 5:7; 2 Chronicles 5:2.
28. See 1 Kings 8:1.
29. See Psalms 9:11; 14:7; 74:2; 78:68-69.
30. See, for example, Isaiah 1:8.
31. Compare Moses 7:17-21, which describes an ancient Zion people.
32. See Doctrine and Covenants 97:21.
33. See Isaiah 51:11.
34. See 3 Nephi 20:22; Ether 13:3-6, 10; Doctrine and Covenants 84:2-4; Revelation 3:12; 21:2; 3 Nephi 21:23-24; Doctrine and Covenants 42:9, 35, 62, 67; 45:66; 133:56; Moses 7:62; A of F 1:10.
35. Doctrine and Covenants 84:54-55.
36. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 6168, p. 788; see also Isaiah 3:17, footnote 17a.
37. Isaiah 3:18, footnote 18a.
38. Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary: Merriam-Webster Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts, 1988, 1563 p.
39. Brown et al., 1996, 1185 p.
40. Webster, p. 87.
41. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 7636, p. 987.
42. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 7720, p. 962.
43. Webster, p. 224.
44. Webster, p. 173.
45. Webster, p. 778.
46. Webster, p. 167.
47. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 6807, p. 857.
48. Webster, p. 558.
49. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No.1549, p. 163.
50. Webster, p. 392.
51. Webster, p. 1016.
52. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 5141, p. 633.
53. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 4254, p. 323.
54. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 4595, p. 742.
55. Webster, p. 1271.
56. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 4304, p. 381.
57. Webster, p. 1350.
58. Webster, p. 307.
59. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 1549, p. 163.
60. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 5466, p. 690.
61. Webster, p. 580.
62. Webster, p. 1307.
63. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 1314, p. 141.
64. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 5364, p. 669.
65. Webster, p. 1035.
66. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 3587, p. 465.

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