Chapter 5 consists of three main parts. In the first, Isaiah describes the apostasy of Judah and Jerusalem in an allegorical song. In the second part the Lord, in a series of woe oracles, pronounces curses upon the people for breaking His covenant. The third part predicts the latter-day gathering and restoration of Israel. The three-part structure of this chapter reflects that of Chapter 1, the entire Book of Isaiah, and the foretold three-stage history of the house of Israel.1

Isaiah’s allegorical song comprises the first seven verses. Composed by Isaiah and possibly sung to the men of Judah, it describes the apostasy of the house of Israel that occurred despite all the Lord has done for them, and describes their being scattered and smitten. Beginning in verse 8 are five woe oracles, each beginning with the word “woe” and setting forth curses—including their destruction and scattering as a nation—that are pronounced upon the people by the Lord as a consequence of their wickedness and apostasy. In the third part the Lord raises an ensign, or standard, to call His scattered people from the most distant parts of the earth. The people come “with speed, swiftly,” to Zion.

Nephi quotes Chapter 5 in its entirety with minor variations in wording; compare 2 Nephi 15.

In verse 1, Isaiah commences the allegory by declaring: “Now will I sing to my wellbeloved a song of my beloved touching his vineyard. My wellbeloved hath a vineyard in a very fruitful hill.” The Book of Mormon renders “And then will I sing to my well-beloved.…2 Isaiah’s use of “wellbeloved,” meaning the Lord, indicates that he considered the Lord to be a faithful, personal friend. The vineyard allegorically represents Judah and Jerusalem.

In verse 2, Isaiah continues: “And he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also made a winepress therein: and he looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes.”

In verse 3 the point of view changes from Isaiah to the Lord: “And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem, and men of Judah, judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard.”

In verse 4 the Lord asks rhetorical questions: “What could have been done more to my vineyard, that I have not done in it?” and “wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, brought it forth wild grapes?” This challenge and the accompanying rhetorical questions are reminiscent of the prophet Nathan challenging King David regarding his sin of adultery and murder; Nathan begins the accusation with a parable.3 The men of Judah, here challenged by Isaiah, are guilty as was King David.

In verses 5 and 6 the Lord continues the allegory, describing the consequences for this apostasy. Verse 5 begins: “And now go to; I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up; and break down the wall thereof, and it shall be trodden down.” The Book of Mormon renders “…and I will break down the wall thereof.”4 The allegorical consequences have spiritual equivalents—the Lord would cease to defend His people. “And it shall be eaten up” means that the great blessings once offered to Judah and Jerusalem are allowed to be obtained and enjoyed by others; the phrases “break down the wall thereof” and “it shall be trodden down” refer again to the Lord’s protection being withdrawn from them as a nation.

Verse 6 continues: “And I will lay it waste: it shall not be pruned, nor digged; but there shall come up briers and thorns: I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it.” “Laying it waste” refers to the destructions to be brought upon the house of Israel. “It shall not be pruned, nor digged” means that the Lord would not provide ongoing guidance, nurturing or revelation. “But there shall come up briers and thorns” foresees that invaders not of the covenant would occupy the land, and that false doctrines would spring up to supplant the truths given by the Lord;5 and “I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it” refers to spiritual as well as physical droughts and famines.6

Verses 2 through 6 contain a chiasm:

A: (2) And he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also made a winepress therein:
B: and he looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes.
C: (3) And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem, and men of Judah, judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard.
C: (4) What could have been done more to my vineyard, that I have not done in it?
B: Wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, brought it forth wild grapes? (5) And now go to; I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard:
A: I will take away the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up; and I will break down the wall thereof, and it shall be trodden down: (6) And I will lay it waste: it shall not be pruned, nor digged; but there shall come up briers and thorns: I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it.

The introductory statement contrasts with its reflection. First, the Lord energetically prepares the vineyard, protecting it with a fence and planting the ground with the choicest vines. Despite the Lord’s diligent efforts the vineyard brings forth wild grapes. In the antithetic reflection the Lord takes away the hedge, breaks down the wall to allow the land to be overrun and trodden down, withholds His nurturing care and commands the clouds to withhold their rain. As a result, the land is encumbered with briers and thorns.

In verse 7 Isaiah explains the Lord’s allegory: “For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah his pleasant plant.”7 Isaiah then summarizes the accusation: “And he looked for judgment, but behold oppression; for righteousness, but behold a cry.” The Great Isaiah Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, renders “behold, a cry of distress.”8 “Judgment,” as used here, means “social justice.”9 Other meanings for “judgment” found in the writings of Isaiah include fairness,10 retribution,11 sound reasoning,12 and an equitable system of laws.13

A variant of this allegory—one involving twelve olive trees instead of grapevines—was presented by the Lord to the Prophet Joseph Smith. In this case, the servants disputed among themselves about the need for a watchtower, “since this is a time of peace.” But the enemy came, broke down the hedge, and devastated the vineyard. The Lord chastised His servants:

Ought ye not to have done even as I commanded you and—after ye had planted the vineyard, and built the hedge round about, and set watchmen upon the walls thereof—built the tower also and set a watchman upon the tower, and watched for my vineyard, and not have fallen asleep, lest the enemy should come upon you?14

Verses 8 through 24 present five woe oracles, describing curses and consequences imposed by the Lord for the transgressions of the house of Israel.

The meaning of verse 8 is easily misinterpreted in the King James Version: “Woe unto them that join house to house, that lay field to field, till there be no place, that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth!” The Book of Mormon omits “that lay field to field” and renders “till there can be.”15 Micah clarifies the meaning: “WOE to them that devise iniquity…And they covet fields, and take them by violence; and houses, and take them away: so they oppress a man and his house, even a man and his heritage.”16 The Lord is displeased with selfishness and covetousness; wealthy landowners, taking over the small farms of the poor, commit great iniquity.17

Verse 9 explains that the acquisition of property would be futile: “In mine ears said the LORD of hosts, Of a truth many houses shall be desolate, even great and fair, without inhabitant.” The Book of Mormon renders “many houses shall be desolate, and great and fair cities without inhabitant.”18 This typifies several cycles of destruction, beginning with the Babylonian captivity and including the destruction of the wicked at the time of the Lord’s Second Coming, as described by Isaiah in a later chapter: “For thou shalt break forth on the right hand and on the left; and thy seed shall inherit the Gentiles, and make the desolate cities to be inhabited” (emphasis added).19

Because of the Lord’s cursings as spelled out by Isaiah, owning an abundance of fields would be unprofitable as described in verse 10: “Yea, ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath, and the seed of an homer shall yield an ephah.” The meaning here is clear, but the units of measurement are unfamiliar. A bath is a liquid measure, approximately 8.5 U.S. gallons or 31.3 liters; a homer is about 6.5 U.S. bushels or 230 liters dry measure; and an ephah is one-tenth of a homer.20 Thus the yield of wine is profoundly less than the amount expected, and the amount of grain harvested is a tenth of the amount planted as seed.

The next woe oracle, comprising verses 11 and 12, concerns drunkenness and revelry: Verse 11 begins: “Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them!” The Book of Mormon renders “and wine inflame them!”21 The Joseph Smith Translation renders “and that continue until night, and wine inflame them!”22 Drunkenness and its accompanying rowdy lifestyle are offensive in the sight of the Lord.

Verse 12 continues: “And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts: but they regard not the work of the LORD, neither consider the operation of his hands.” The Hebrew meanings rendered as “viol” and “tabret” are “lute” and “timbrel,” or “tambourine.”23 Musical instruments, once used for worship of the Lord, are now mainly for entertainment. Because their interest and efforts are directed toward worldly pursuits, the people do not recognize the work of the Lord.

In verses 13 and 14, consequences are spelled out. In verse 13 the Lord declares: “Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge: and their honourable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst.” This statement foreshadows the Babylonian captivity but is also a type for other destructions yet to come. The people are taken into captivity because they lack spiritual knowledge. Spiritual hunger and thirst, as well as physical deprivation, are implied.24

Verses 11 through 13 contain a chiasm:25

(11) Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning,
A: that they may follow strong drink;
B: and that continue until night, and wine inflame them!
C: (12) And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts:
D: but they regard not the work of the LORD,
D: neither consider the operation of his hands.
C: and their honourable men are famished,
B: (13) Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge: and their multitude dried up
A: with thirst.

In this chiasm,  seeking of pleasure by the children of Judah is contrasted with their suffering after their defeat and being carried away captive. Before, they sought after strong drink; in captivity and defeat they are plagued with thirst. Before their captivity, they were inflamed with wine; afterward the multitude is dried up [with thirst]. These woes would come upon them because they have no regard for the Lord nor His work.

Verse 14 describes physical and spiritual consequences: “Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure: and their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it.” “Pomp” is translated from the Hebrew for “noise” or “uproar.”26 The Hebrew word for “hell” is sheol, or world of departed spirits.27 Many will perish in the destructions foretold.

Verse 15 states: “And the mean man shall be brought down, and the mighty man shall be humbled, and the eyes of the lofty shall be humbled.” The common man as well as the powerful will be humiliated, and the haughty will be made to lower their eyes.

In contrast, verse 16 describes the glory of the Lord: “But the LORD of hosts shall be exalted in judgment, and God that is holy shall be sanctified in righteousness.” The common man, the mighty man, and even the haughty will at some point recognize the power and glory of the Lord, His right to rule and judge, and His righteousness. As the Lord said: “I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.”28, 29 “Judgment,” as used here, means “fairness” or “justice.”30

Verse 17 describes conditions after the destruction: “Then shall the lambs feed after their manner, and the waste places of the fat ones shall strangers eat.” The Great Isaiah Scroll mentions goats, as well as the fat ones (fatlings), grazing among the ruins.31  The land—and the blessings of the gospel—will be possessed by “strangers,” meaning those not originally of the covenant but brought into it by conversion. This prophecy was fulfilled after the crucifixion of Christ when the Apostle Peter received revelation that the gospel was to be preached to the Gentiles.32

Four more woe oracles, all closely related, are presented in verses 18 through 23. The consequences, beginning with the word “therefore,” are set forth in verses 24 and 25.

In verses 18 and 19, the Lord curses those who are laden with sin. Verse 18 begins: “Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope—” This describes people who are so laden with sin that, figuratively, they need a cart to bear the burden, although they present the appearance of righteousness by avoiding the outward appearance of sin.

Verse 19 continues the sentence of the previous verse: “That say, Let him make speed, and hasten his work, that we may see it: and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw nigh and come, that we may know it!” Because of sin they will not believe in the Messiah nor His coming until they see Him.33

Verses 12 through 19 contain a chiasm:

A: (12) And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts: but they regard not the work of the LORD, neither consider the operation of his hands.
B: (13) Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge:
C: and their honourable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst.
D: (14) Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure: and their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it.
E: (15) And the mean man shall be brought down,
F: and the mighty man shall be humbled,
F: and the eyes of the lofty shall be humbled:
E: (16) But the LORD of hosts shall be exalted in judgment, and God that is holy shall be sanctified in righteousness.
D: (17) Then shall the lambs feed after their manner, and the waste places of the fat ones
C: shall strangers eat.
B: (18) Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope:
A: (19) That say, Let him make speed, and hasten his work, that we may see it: and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw nigh and come, that we may know it!

“Regard not the work of the LORD, neither consider the operation of his hands” in verse 12 is antithetic to “hasten his work, that we may see it: and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw nigh and come, that we may know it!” in verse 19, revealing the hypocrisy of the latter statement. The central focus of this chiasm is that the mighty and the lofty will be humbled. “The mean man shall be brought down” contrasts with “the LORD of hosts shall be exalted.” Hell opening her mouth to receive the multitudes of the slain contrasts abruptly with the pastoral scene of lambs feeding that would prevail after the slaughter. “Gone into captivity” in verse 13 is compared with “draw iniquity with cords of vanity” in verse 18, illustrating the effect and its cause. This comparison illustrates that iniquity is a form of bondage.

The meaning of verse 20 is clear: “Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!” 34 In our own time, we see numerous examples of calling evil good and good evil. Not only are evil governmental practices touted as good by corrupt politicians lacking in judgment, but we have seen “bad” come to mean “good” in the vernacular. By putting a particular “spin” on what transpires no matter how bad it is, making it look good for political advantage has become a cultivated art form. The gap between what is popular and what is righteous is widening.35 Those who seek to do right must break with society’s norms much sooner than in the past.

The meaning of verse 21 is also clear: “Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight!” the Book of Mormon renders “Wo unto the wise in their own eyes and prudent in their own sight!”36 Without guidance from the Lord and acknowledgment of His all-encompassing wisdom and knowledge, worldly wisdom and knowledge are of little worth.

Verse 22 is easily understood in light of the Word of Wisdom:37 “Woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle strong drink.” The Book of Mormon renders “Wo unto the mighty to drink wine….”38 Consumption of wine and “mingled” (mixed) drinks39 is today considered a sign of masculinity and strength.

Verse 23, continuing the sentence from the previous verse, describes a common practice at all levels of our society: “Which justify the wicked for reward, and take away the righteousness of the righteous from him!” The Book of Mormon renders “Who justify the wicked for reward.”40 The Hebrew word translated as “reward” means “bribe,” usually to pervert justice.41 The practices of justifying the wicked for bribes and taking away the rights of the righteous are all too common in our society.

Verses 24 and 25 explain the consequences associated with the foregoing woes, each beginning with “therefore.” Verse 24 begins: “Therefore as the fire devoureth the stubble, and the flame consumeth the chaff, so their root shall be as rottenness, and their blossom shall go up as dust: because they have cast away the law of the LORD of hosts, and despised the word of the Holy One of Israel.” The Book of Mormon omits “so” and “as” to render “their root shall be rottenness.”42 Destruction of the wicked—here characterized by the metaphor of a dry and rotten plant—will be by fire.43

The meaning of this passage is the same as set forth by Malachi: “For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the LORD of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch.”44 “Roots” refers to ancestors whereas “branches” or “blossoms” refers to descendants. Both scriptures mean that the consequences for wickedness include being burned at the Lord’s Second Coming and not having their sealing ordinances in place, leaving them without ancestors or descendants in the eternal sense.

Verse 25 describes cataclysmic destruction: “Therefore is the anger of the LORD kindled against his people, and he hath stretched forth his hand against them, and hath smitten them: and the hills did tremble, and their carcases were torn in the midst of the streets. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.” The Great Isaiah Scroll renders hands in the final phrase.45

Because of their iniquity the Lord is angry with His people. In addition to the burning described in verse 24 there will be earthquakes that will shake the hills, and the dead bodies of the people will be torn and strewn about in the streets. Isaiah uses the past tense as though recounting events seen in a vision. The closing phrase of verse 25, “For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still,” means that the justice of the Lord’s anger continues and His hand is stretched out against them in punishment. This phrase has the same meaning as the preceding phrase: “Therefore is the anger of the LORD kindled against his people, and he hath stretched forth his hand against them, and hath smitten them.” Apparently the time for repentance will have passed when these conditions arise. The phrase “for all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still” is repeated four times elsewhere by Isaiah, all with the same meaning.46

The third part of this chapter comprises verses 26 through 30, which describe the gathering of Israel in the latter days. Part of this prophecy has been fulfilled; doubtless the prophecy will continue to be fulfilled to a greater extent in the future. The reason it follows a prophecy of destruction earlier in the chapter is to emphasize that despite the destruction the Lord will look favorably upon Israel and she will be gathered and crowned with glory.

In verse 26 the word “ensign” means a military flag, such as were used to denote battlefield conditions and send messages to the combatants. In this case the message is to assemble: “And he will lift up an ensign to the nations from far, and will hiss unto them from the end of the earth: and, behold, they shall come with speed swiftly.” The Book of Mormon appends the first phrase of verse 27 here: “none shall be weary nor stumble among them.”47 “From the end of the earth” means from far away.48 “Hiss” is translated from a Hebrew word meaning “whistle,” a common signal used to summon.49

Nephi paraphrases verse 26: “And also, that I may remember the promises which I have made unto thee, Nephi…that I would remember your seed…my words shall hiss forth unto the ends of the earth, for a standard unto my people, which are of the house of Israel” (emphasis added).50

In Doctrine and Covenants, the Lord describes Zion in the latter days as that ensign to the people: “Zion shall flourish, and the glory of the Lord shall be upon her; And she shall be an ensign unto the people, and there shall come unto her out of every nation under heaven.”51

Brigham Young was shown the Salt Lake Valley in vision so that he would recognize the place when he and the outcasts from Nauvoo arrived. In particular, he was shown a prominent hill now north of the city that became known as Ensign Peak. From that place, said President Young, the gospel would be preached to the world. A flagpole was erected there and a flag flown.52 From this place the Lord “will hiss unto them from the end of the earth.”

The Lord explained to Nephi the significance of this passage and how his words, now contained in the Book of Mormon, would play an important role:

And also, that I may remember the promises which I have made unto thee, Nephi, and also unto thy father, that I would remember your seed; and that the words of your seed should proceed forth out of my mouth unto your seed; and my words shall hiss forth unto the ends of the earth, for a standard unto my people, which are of the house of Israel;
And because my words shall hiss forth—many of the Gentiles shall say: A Bible! A Bible! We have got a Bible, and there cannot be any more Bible….
Know ye not that there are more nations than one? Know ye not that I, the Lord your God, have created all men, and that I remember those who are upon the isles of the sea; and that I rule in the heavens above and in the earth beneath; and I bring forth my word unto the children of men, yea, even upon all the nations of the earth?
Wherefore murmur ye, because that ye shall receive more of my word? Know ye not that the testimony of two nations is a witness unto you that I am God, that I remember one nation like unto another? Wherefore, I speak the same words unto one nation like unto another. And when the two nations shall run together the testimony of the two nations shall run together also.53

The restored gospel, and in particular the Book of Mormon, will be this “hiss” or “whistle” to summon the Lord’s people to gather from the ends of the earth. The LDS missionaries—carrying the Book of Mormon and having a testimony of the gospel of Jesus Christ, sent forth in large numbers from Salt Lake City and other centers—are a fulfillment of this prophecy.

The final phrase of verse 26 says “and, behold, they shall come with speed swiftly,” describing how those responding to the summons would gather to Zion. Verses 27 through 30 describe more about swift methods of travel, which Isaiah saw but lacked vocabulary in ancient Hebrew to describe. Several modern General Authorities, including LeGrand Richards,54 have said that these verses describe modern travel by train and airplane.

In verse 27 Isaiah describes the people conveyed: “None shall be weary nor stumble among them; none shall slumber nor sleep; neither shall the girdle of their loins be loosed, nor the latchet of their shoes be broken.” The Book of Mormon inserts the first phrase of verse 27 at the end of verse 26: “none shall be weary nor stumble among them.”55 To Isaiah it was notable that large numbers of people could be transported quickly in a way that did not tire them out—weariness was a common result of travel in ancient times, as attested in many places in the scriptures.56

Verse 28, “Whose arrows are sharp, and all their bows bent, their horses’ hoofs shall be counted like flint, and their wheels like a whirlwind” describes their state of preparation metaphorically, as though they were a military force well prepared to attack. The Book of Mormon renders “whose arrows shall be sharp” and appends the first part of verse 29 here: “their roaring shall be like a lion.”57 “Like a whirlwind” describes the great speed—compared to standards of Isaiah’s day—with which we drive around in our cars, but it could also describe the spinning of wheels on trains. “Their roaring shall be like a lion” describes the great noise accompanying modern methods of transportation.

Verse 29 continues: “Their roaring shall be like a lion, they shall roar like young lions: yea, they shall roar, and lay hold of the prey, and shall carry it away safe, and none shall deliver it.” Isaiah continues his description of modern travel, seen in vision, and the great noise made. As noted above, the first part of this verse, “Their roaring shall be like a lion,” is appended to the previous verse in the Book of Mormon.58

Verse 30 states: “And in that day they shall roar against them like the roaring of the sea: and if one look unto the land, behold darkness and sorrow, and the light is darkened in the heavens thereof.” The Book of Mormon renders “if they look unto the land.”59

Isaiah was very much impressed with the great noise made by airplanes. In verses 29 and 30 he repeats the word “roar” or a form of the word five times: “Their roaring shall be like a lion, they shall roar like young lions: yea, they shall roar, and lay hold of the prey, and shall carry it away safe, and none shall deliver it. And in that day they shall roar against them like the roaring of the sea” (emphasis added). Here Isaiah is describing the sound of modern transportation—in particular, the roar of jet-powered aircraft.

Regarding modern means of travel seen by Isaiah, Elder LeGrand Richards said:

Since there were neither trains nor airplanes in that day, Isaiah could hardly have mentioned them by name. However, he seems to have described them in unmistakable words. How better could “their horses’ hooves be counted like flint, and their wheels like a whirlwind” than in the modern train. How better could “their roaring…be like a lion” than in the roar of the airplane? Trains and airplanes do not stop for night. Therefore, was not Isaiah justified in saying: “none shall slumber nor sleep; neither shall the girdle of their loins be loosed, nor the latchet of their shoes be broken”? With this manner of transportation “…they shall come with speed swiftly.”60

The final phrase in verse 30, “and if one look unto the land, behold darkness and sorrow, and the light is darkened in the heavens thereof,” may be Isaiah’s description of the dramatic view from the window of an airplane as it takes off into the evening sky. Darkness and sorrow indicate a profound spiritual component: the people gathering to Zion aboard airplanes are leaving lands of tribulation, torment and spiritual darkness. This is a classic Isaiah double meaning.

 


Notes:

1. Chapters 2 through 39 depict Israel in her homeland in a state of wickedness; chapters 40 through 54 describe Israel in exile in the world at large, interacting with people and events; and chapters 55 through 66 describe her glorious return to her homeland following repentance and cleansing.
2. 2 Nephi 15:1.
3. See 2 Samuel 12:1-7.
4. 2 Nephi 15:5.
5. See Isaiah 55:13; 9:18; 10:17; 27:4; 32:13 and pertinent commentary.
6. See Isaiah 3:2-3 and pertinent commentary.
7. The first part of verse 7 contains a chiasm: Vineyard/ house of Israel/men of Judah/pleasant plant. In Donald W. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 2001, p. 258.
8. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah, 2001, p. 51.
9. See Isaiah 28:6; 42:1; 59:8, 15.
10. See Isaiah 1:21, 27; 5:16; 16:3, 5; 28:6, 17; 30:18.
11. See Isaiah 1:17; 3:14; 4:4; 34:5.
12. See Isaiah 1:17; 28:7; 40:14, 27; 42:3; 59:8.
13. See Isaiah 51:4; 54:17.
14. Doctrine and Covenants 101:53; see verses 44-62.
15. 2 Nephi 15:8.
16. Micah 2:1-2.
17. See Isaiah 5:8, footnote 8c.
18. 2 Nephi 15:9.
19. Isaiah 54:3; see also 3 Nephi 22:3.
20. Bible Dictionary—Weights and Measures.
21. 2 Nephi 15:11.
22. Joseph Smith’s “New Translation” of the Bible: Herald Publishing House, Independence, Missouri, 1970, p. 195.
23. F. Brown, S. Driver, and C. Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon: Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 01961-3473, 1996, Strong’s No. 5035, p. 614 (viol); Strong’s No. 8596, p. 1074 (tabret).
24. See references for verse 6.
25. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah, 2001, p. 258.
26. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 7588, p. 981.
27. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 7585, p. 982.
28. Isaiah 45:23.
29. See also Romans 14:11, Mosiah 27:31; Doctrine and Covenants 76:110; 88:104.
30. See Isaiah 1:21, 27; 16:3, 5; 28:6, 17; 30:18.
31. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah, 2001, p. 53.
32. See Acts 10:9-33; compare Isaiah 65:1-7.
33. Isaiah 5:18-19, footnotes 18c and 19d.
34. Verse 20 contains 3 simple chiasms :  Evil/good/good/evil; Darkness/light/light/darkness; Bitter/sweet/sweet/bitter. In Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah, 2001, p. 258.
35. James E. Faust, “Lord, I Believe; Help Thou Mine Unbelief,” Ensign, Nov. 2003, p. 19.
36. 2 Nephi 15:21.
37. See Doctrine and Covenants 89: 5-7.
38. 2 Nephi 15:22.
39. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 4537, p. 587.
40. 2 Nephi 15:23.
41. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 7810, p. 1005.
42. 2 Nephi 15:24.
43. See Isaiah 1:7, 28; 9:5, 18-19 and pertinent commentary.
44. Malachi 4:1.
45. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah, 2001, p. 54.
46. Isaiah 9:12, 17, 21; 10:4.
47. 2 Nephi 15:26.
48. See Isaiah 26:15; 40:28; 41:5, 9.
49. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 8319, pages 1056 and 1117.
50. 2 Nephi 29:2.
51. Doctrine and Covenants 64:41-42.
52. See Gordon B. Hinckley, Our Heritage: A Brief History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1995, p. 81. See also Journal of Discourses: F.W. and S.W. Richards (26 Vols., Liverpool, England: 1854-1886), v. 13: pp. 85-86.
53. 2 Nephi 29:2-3, 7-8.
54. LeGrand Richards, A Marvelous Work and a Wonder: Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1958, p. 236.
55. 2 Nephi 15:26-27.
56. See 1 Kings 19:7; John 4:6; 1 Nephi 16:35-36; 17:1-2; Mosiah 7:16.
57. 2 Nephi 15:28-29.
58. 2 Nephi 15:29.
59. 2 Nephi 15:30.
60. Richards, A Marvelous Work and a Wonder, p. 236.

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