Chapter 10 foretells the destruction of Israel at the hand of Assyria. Assyria would act as an instrument in the hands of God to bring about the punishment and destruction of unrepentant Israel, but then Assyria would also be destroyed. The destruction of Assyria is a type for—or, is typical of—the destruction of the wicked at the Second Coming. Because of rampant wickedness preceding the destruction at that time, few people would be left after the destruction of the wicked. The Lord comforts those in Zion, reassuring them that the indignation would last for only a short while; then the Lord would defeat the invaders.
An important key to understanding this chapter is to carefully note who is speaking and at what point the speaker shifts. In the first part—a woe oracle (verses 1 through 4)—the Lord is speaking, declaring woe unto unrighteous rulers and specifying the destruction that awaits them. The woe oracle is followed by an explanatory phrase spoken by Isaiah— “For all this, his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still” in the last part of verse 4. The Lord then resumes speaking, declaring destruction upon “an hypocritical nation,” meaning ancient Israel and her modern equivalent, at the hand of the Assyrians and their modern counterpart (verses 5 through 7). Then the Lord vocalizes the Assyrian king’s prideful thoughts (verses 8 through 11) and decrees swift destruction upon him, his army, and his modern equivalent (verse 12). This is followed by more of the Assyrian king’s prideful thoughts, boasting of his conquests (verses 13 and 14). Isaiah then speaks, chastising Assyria for not acknowledging that the devastation they had brought upon Israel was the work of the Lord, who used the Assyrians as an instrument (verse 15). Isaiah, continuing as voice, declares swift destruction upon Assyria (verses 16 through 19). This declaration is followed by a prophecy, spoken by Isaiah, of the return of the remnant of Israel who would be scattered among all nations (verses 20 through 23).
In the final verses of this chapter (verses 24 through 34) Isaiah changes the subject abruptly, prophesying of an invasion by ancient Assyria against Jerusalem that is repulsed by the miraculous destruction of the Assyrian army at the hand of the Lord. This prophecy was fulfilled during the reign of Hezekiah,1 but serves as a type for our day.
Nephi quotes this chapter in its entirety; compare 2 Nephi 20. Differences present in the Book of Mormon text are shown in italics where quoted. This chapter has several chiasms that greatly add to our understanding of Isaiah’s meaning.
Verses 1 through 4 comprise a woe oracle in which the Lord declares evil consequences upon unrighteous rulers. The woe oracle is the final one of four that comprise an important prophetic message, or “priestly sermon,” directed to the northern kingdom of Israel and to Judah. Verse 1 begins: “Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, and that write grievousness which they have prescribed.” The written grievousness means unfair edicts or laws that deprive subjects or citizens of rights, resources or property.
Verse 2 describes wicked rulers’ persecution of the powerless: “To turn aside the needy from judgment and take away the right from the poor of my people, that widows may be their prey, and that they may rob the fatherless!” “Judgment” here means justice.2 Wicked rulers would derive their unjust power from taking advantage of the poor, including widows and orphans.
In verse 3 the Lord poses accusatory questions: “And what will ye do in the day of visitation, and in the desolation which shall come from far? to whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye leave your glory?” “Visitation” is translated from a Hebrew word meaning “punishment” or “accountability.”3 The Lord will abandon them in the day of visitation because of their wickedness, leaving them defenseless against “the desolation which shall come from far,” meaning the invading Assyrian army and its modern equivalent.
Verse 4 concludes the cursing pronounced by the Lord: “Without me they shall bow down under the prisoners, and they shall fall under the slain.” The wicked rulers would be numbered among the prisoners and among the dead.
The closing phrase of verse 4, spoken by Isaiah, “For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still,” means that the justice of the Lord’s anger continues and His hand is stretched out against them in punishment; this is repeated three times in Chapter 9, in addition to this occurrence in verse 4, all with the same meaning.4 The prophet explains the meaning of the phrase earlier, in Chapter 5, where it is preceded in the same verse by a parallel phrase with somewhat different wording but identical meaning: “Therefore is the anger of the LORD kindled against his people, and he hath stretched forth his hand against them, and hath smitten them.”5
Regarding the high-minded rulers of the latter days, the Lord stated to Joseph Smith:
[T]hat I may visit them in the day of visitation, when I shall unveil the face of my covering, to appoint the portion of the oppressor among the hypocrites, where there is gnashing of teeth, if they reject my servants and my testimony which I have revealed unto them.6
Verses 1 through 4 contain a chiasm which begins with the final phrase of the last verse of Chapter 9:
A: (9:21)…For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.
B: (1) Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, and that write grievousness which they have prescribed;
C: (2) To turn aside the needy from judgment, and to take away the right from the poor of my people, that widows may be their prey, and that they may rob the fatherless!
D: (3) And what will ye do in the day of visitation,
D: and in the desolation which shall come from far?
C: to whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye leave your glory?
B: (4) Without me they shall bow down under the prisoners, and they shall fall under the slain.
A: For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.
This chiasm pronounces woes upon unrighteous rulers. The beginning phrase, “for all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still,” is reflected at the end by a repetition of the same phrase. “Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees” complements “without me they shall bow down under the prisoners, and they shall fall under the slain,” meaning specifically that the unrighteous rulers will be singled out to be taken prisoner and slain. “To turn aside the needy from judgment” complements “to whom will ye flee for help?” indicating that the help they denied the needy will be denied them in retribution; and “what will ye do in the day of visitation” compares with “in the desolation which shall come from far?” stating that when destruction comes these unrighteous rulers will be held to account for their wickedness toward those who depended upon them for help.7
In verse 5 the Lord resumes speaking, declaring that Assyria is an instrument in His hand to mete out justice against wicked Israel: “O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation.”8 The Assyrian army is figuratively the rod being wielded by the Lord against Israel and Judah to punish them for their wickedness. The Book of Mormon renders “…and the staff in their hand is their indignation;”9 this rendition includes the anger of the invaders. “Indignation” means “displeasure.”
In verse 6 the Lord, who continues speaking, declares: “I will send him [the king of Assyria] against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets.”10 “An hypocritical nation” means ancient Israel and Judah, and also their modern counterparts. Destruction will come at the hand of the Assyrians and their modern superpower equivalents. The phrase “to take the spoil, and to take the prey” in verse 6 is translated from the Hebrew Maher-shalal-hash-baz, the name of Isaiah’s second son, designating that the foretold destruction would be in fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy given at the time of his son’s conception.11
In verse 7 the Lord explains that the Assyrian king does not understand that he is merely an instrument of destruction in the hands of the Lord: “Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few.” Archaic sentence construction may render this passage hard to understand. “Howbeit he meaneth not so” means “Even though he will not think of it like that.”
In verses 8 through 11 the Lord quotes the Assyrian king’s prideful thoughts. Verse 8 queries: “Are not my princes altogether kings?” A negative question, such as this and those that follow, means that the premise is so obvious as to be a foregone conclusion—in this case, that the princes under the command of the king should, indeed, be considered equal to kings of other nations.
Verse 9 continues: “Is not Calno as Carchemish? is not Hamath as Arpad?” These are countries left desolate in the wake of the Assyrian onslaught that were unable to resist. Finally the Assyrian king reasons, “is not Samaria”—a land he has just laid waste— “as Damascus?” Syria at this time was a tribute country to the Assyrian overlords.
In verses 10 and 11 the Assyrian king continues his boasting. Verse 10 states: “As my hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols, and whose graven images did excel them of Jerusalem and of Samaria—” The Book of Mormon renders “As my hand hath founded the kingdoms of the idols….”12 “Founded” means “to establish,” or “to lay the foundation.”13
Verse 11 continues: “Shall I not, as I have done unto Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols?” Here the king derides the idolatry of Jerusalem, reasoning that her idols would be powerless in defense against his invading armies just as were the idols of other countries, including neighboring Samaria. As a custom, ancient conquerors destroyed or carried off the idols of vanquished nations to establish that their own deities were superior to those of the defeated nation. In Chapter 46, Isaiah foretells the overthrow of Babylon by depicting her idols being carried into captivity.14
In verse 12, the Lord decrees swift destruction upon the king of Assyria, his army, and his modern equivalent once they have fulfilled the Lord’s purposes: “Wherefore it shall come to pass, that when the Lord hath performed his whole work upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem, I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks.” The Book of Mormon renders “…and upon Jerusalem….”15 “Zion” is used twice in Chapter 10 in the same way, with dual meanings—a place of latter-day spiritual gathering, as well as a synonym for Jerusalem, both ancient and modern. The whole of the Lord’s work includes the destructions foretold in this chapter, together with the latter-day restoration and gathering under righteous conditions.16
In verses 13 and 14 the Assyrian king continues his boasting: “For he saith, by the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom; for I am prudent: and I have removed the bounds of the people, and have robbed their treasures, and I have put down the inhabitants like a valiant man: And my hand hath found as a nest the riches of the people: and as one gathereth eggs that are left, have I gathered all the earth; and there was none that moved the wing, or opened the mouth, or peeped.” The Book of Mormon renders “…I have done these things….”17 This is a troubling thought: that ancient Israel’s modern counterpart—a “hypocritical nation”—will somehow render itself so defenseless that an invading army would be able to pillage totally unopposed.
In verse 15 Isaiah resumes speaking, chastising Assyria for not acknowledging that the devastation they would bring upon Israel was the work of the Lord, with the Lord using them as an instrument: “Shall the axe boast itself against him that heweth therewith? or shall the saw magnify itself against him that shaketh it? as if the rod should shake itself against them that lift it up, or as if the staff should lift up itself, as if it were no wood.” The Hebrew word from which “wood” is translated means “firewood;”18 the Hebrew meaning for “shaketh” is “wields” or “moves.”19 All the metaphors in this verse, phrased as rhetorical questions, ask the same question: Can man—specifically, the Assyrian king—prosper against God?
In verses 16 through 19 Isaiah, continuing as voice, declares swift destruction upon Assyria. Verse 16 begins: “Therefore shall the Lord, the Lord of hosts, send among his fat ones leanness; and under his glory he shall kindle a burning like the burning of a fire.”20 “Therefore shall the Lord…send among his fat ones leanness” means that the Lord would send weakness among the Assyrian king’s most vigorous warriors.
Verse 17 reveals the cause of the conflagration: “And the light of Israel shall be for a fire, and his Holy One for a flame.” These equivalent phrases teach us that “the light of Israel” is the same as “his Holy One,” meaning the Messiah or Jesus Christ.
Continuing in verse 17, Isaiah states: “And it shall burn and devour his thorns and his briers in one day.” “His” as used here refers to the modern counterpart of the Assyrian king, and “thorns” and “briers” mean the lies and false doctrines he has caused to be planted in the hearts of the people.21 Earlier, in Chapter 9, Isaiah described the destruction at the Lord’s Second Coming. Instead of the usual battle scenes “with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood,” this destruction would be “with burning and fuel of fire.”22
Verse 18 continues the description of the destruction of the Assyrian king and his hosts, both ancient and modern: “And shall consume the glory of his forest, and of his fruitful field, both soul and body: and they shall be as when a standardbearer fainteth.”23 “His forest” means the Assyrian nobility or leaders, and “his fruitful field” means their economic apparatus.24 “Glory” as used here means military strength.25 “Both soul and body” means that Assyria will vanish completely, both politically and culturally. A standard-bearer in ancient warfare served the vital role of communication between the commander and his forces. With the standard-bearer no longer providing communication, total chaos would ensue.
Verses 16 through 18 contain a chiasm:
A: (16) Therefore shall the Lord, the Lord of hosts, send among his fat ones leanness;
B: and under his glory
C: he shall kindle a burning like the burning of a fire.
D: (17) And the light of Israel shall be for a fire,
D: and his Holy One for a flame:
C: and it shall burn and devour his thorns and his briers in one day;
B: (18) And shall consume the glory of his forest, and of his fruitful field, both soul and body:
A: and they shall be as when a standardbearer fainteth.
The “leanness,” or physical weakness, to be sent among the Assyrian army and its modern counterpart compares with “when a standardbearer fainteth,” which would result militarily in total confusion. “His glory,” meaning the glory of the Lord at His coming, is contrasted with “glory of his forest,” meaning the worldly glory and military strength of the prideful leaders of ancient Assyria and their modern equivalent. “Burning like the burning of a fire” reflects “shall burn and devour his thorns and his briers in one day.” “The light of Israel shall be for a fire” is equivalent to “his Holy One for a flame,” which comprise the central focus of the chiasm.
Does the burning refer to a nuclear holocaust, or does it mean the wicked being consumed by the glory of the Lord’s presence? The combination of elements in this chiasm indicates that the Lord’s glory will be the consuming fire—those unworthy of His presence and unable to endure it will be consumed. Note that in addition to the physical destructions, the truths to be made manifest at the Lord’s Second Coming will destroy all the lies and false doctrines of the modern equivalent of the Assyrian king, along with his armies, in a single day.
In verse 19, “trees” and “forest” refer to the Assyrian leaders or nobility: “And the rest of the trees of his forest shall be few, that a child may write them.” All but a few would be slain, decimating their ranks.
In verses 20 through 23, Isaiah prophesies of the return in the latter days of the remnant of Israel who had been scattered among all nations. Verse 20 states: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that the remnant of Israel, and such as are escaped of the house of Jacob, shall no more again stay upon him that smote them; but shall stay upon the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, in truth.” The Hebrew word from which “stay” is translated means “lean upon” or “trust.”26 Rather than placing their confidence in evil despots, those of the remnant would place their confidence in the Lord.
Verse 21 declares: “The remnant shall return, even the remnant of Jacob, unto the mighty God.”27 The Book of Mormon renders: “The remnant shall return, yea, even the remnant of Jacob….”28 The phrase “The remnant shall return” is the English meaning of the name of Isaiah’s oldest son, Shear-jashub, indicating that this foretold latter-day event would be in fulfillment of the prophecy given at the time of Isaiah’s son’s birth.29
Verse 22 continues: “For though thy people Israel be as the sand of the sea, yet a remnant of them shall return: the consumption decreed shall overflow with righteousness.” Israel being like “the sand of the sea” means that they are numerous but scattered. “Consumption” is translated from a Hebrew word meaning “complete destruction” or “annihilation;”30 and “overflow with righteousness” means that the destruction would fulfill the just and righteous designs of the Lord.
Verse 23 states: “For the Lord GOD of hosts shall make a consumption, even determined, in the midst of all the land.” The Book of Mormon renders “…even determined in all the land.”31 The meaning is that the wicked would be annihilated, completely removing them from the land.32
In verses 24 through 34, the final verses of this chapter, Isaiah changes the subject abruptly, prophesying of an invasion by Assyria against Jerusalem that is repulsed by the miraculous destruction of the Assyrian army by the angel of the Lord. This prophecy was fulfilled during the reign of Hezekiah.33 Not only does the prophecy foretell the defeat of ancient Assyria; it is a type for destruction of Assyria’s modern equivalent.
In verse 24 Isaiah declares authoritatively: “Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD of hosts,” followed by the Lord’s words in verses 24 and 25: “O my people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrian: he shall smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt.” “After the manner of Egypt” means the cruelty of the Egyptians in earlier times, when the Israelites served them as slaves.34 “Zion” as used here means a place of latter-day spiritual gathering as well as being a synonym for ancient Jerusalem, particularly under her righteous king. These meanings reflect the different times that this prophecy is to be fulfilled.35, 36
Verse 25 continues: “For yet a very little while, and the indignation shall cease, and mine anger in their destruction.” The onslaught of Assyria—both in the days of Hezekiah and in the equivalent latter-day confrontation—would last only a short time. This statement will be a great comfort to those who understand the significance of the latter-day events.37
In verses 26 and 27, Isaiah describes what will happen at that time. Verse 26 states: “And the LORD of hosts shall stir up a scourge for him according to the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb: and as his rod was upon the sea, so shall he lift it up after the manner of Egypt.” The slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb refers to a time when Gideon led a force of 300 Israelites, identified by their means of drinking water from a stream—lapping the water like a dog, “putting their hand to their mouth.” This small force frightened the Midianites with trumpets and lights; the result was infighting, slaughter, and defeat among the Midianites.38 “After the manner of Egypt” in this instance refers to the time when the Egyptian armies were destroyed by the returning waters as they attempted to pursue Israel across the parted Red Sea.39
In verse 27, Isaiah asserts that the Assyrian oppression would be undone: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that his burden shall be taken away from off thy shoulder, and his yoke from off thy neck, and the yoke shall be destroyed because of the anointing.” “The anointing” refers to the Lord’s covenant with Abraham40 and also the promise to David that his righteous descendants upon the throne of Judah would be sustained by the Lord.41
Although this passage foretells a specific miraculous event that occurred during the reign of Hezekiah, it is a type that foretells the Lord’s intervention in behalf of His people in the latter days. Truly, this will also be a great miracle.
Verses 24 through 27 contain a chiasm:
(24) Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD of hosts,
A: O my people that dwellest in Zion,
B: be not afraid of the Assyrian: he shall smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee,
C: after the manner of Egypt.
D: (25) For yet a very little while, and the indignation shall cease, and mine anger in their destruction.
D: (26) And the LORD of hosts shall stir up a scourge for him according to the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb:
C: and as his rod was upon the sea, so shall he lift it up after the manner of Egypt.
B: (27) And it shall come to pass in that day, that his burden shall be taken away from off thy shoulder, and his yoke from off thy neck,
A: and the yoke shall be destroyed because of the anointing.
“O my people that dwellest in Zion” compares with “anointing,” indicating that it would be the righteousness of His covenant people—although probably outnumbered by those among the people who would be wicked—that would prompt the Lord’s miraculous intervention against the Assyrian army. It also refers to the anointing of the Davidic king—in this case Hezekiah, who would humble himself before the Lord. “Shall smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee” contrasts with “his burden shall be taken away from off thy shoulder, and his yoke from off thy neck,” indicating that although the Assyrian king would smite them, his oppression would be miraculously removed from them. “After the manner of Egypt” in verse 24 means the oppression endured by the enslaved Israelites in Egypt, whereas the same phrase in verse 26 refers to destruction of the Egyptian army in the Red Sea as they pursued the escaping Israelites led by Moses. “Mine anger” compares with “the LORD of hosts,” designating who is speaking and whose anger is to accomplish the destruction.
In verses 28 through 32, the terrifying advance of the Assyrian king and his army is described by Isaiah, mentioning various towns and villages, finally arriving at the base of the hill where Jerusalem is located:
He is come to Aiath, he is passed to Migron; at Michmash he hath laid up his carriages:
They are gone over the passage: they have taken up their lodging at Geba; Ramah is afraid; Gibeah of Saul is fled.
Lift up thy voice, O daughter of Gallim: cause it to be heard unto Laish, O poor Anathoth.
Madmenah is removed; the inhabitants of Gebim gather themselves to flee.
As yet shall he remain at Nob that day: he shall shake his hand against the mount of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem.
Some of the localities cited can be found on maps in the Bible; see especially Map 4, “The Empire of David and Solomon” in the LDS Bible.42 The succession of place names indicates that the king of Assyria would advance from the north toward Jerusalem.
Isaiah uses “the daughter of Zion” with dual meanings in verse 32. Its main use here is as a synonym for Jerusalem, but when these events are considered as types for latter-day happenings, other meanings may also be discerned. In particular, it refers to the place of latter-day spiritual gathering, which should at some time come under attack and be defended miraculously by the Lord. 43 The Great Isaiah Scroll reads “…the mount of the house of Zion” in verse 32.44
Verses 33 and 34 describe the defeat of the Assyrian army at that time:
Behold, the Lord, the LORD of hosts, shall lop the bough with terror: and the high ones of stature shall be hewn down, and the haughty shall be humbled.
And he shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one.
“Bough,” “thickets” and “forest” refer to the Assyrian leaders or nobility, particularly “the high ones of stature,” to be hewn down by the Lord’s mighty iron axe. The elements of the metaphor are familiar to us.45
This prophecy was fulfilled when 185,000 men of the Assyrian army were slain during the night by the angel of the Lord:
And it came to pass that night, that the angel of the LORD went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred fourscore and five thousand: and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses.
So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh.
And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword: and they escaped into the land of Armenia. And Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead.46
1. See 2 Kings 18 and 19; also Isaiah 36 and 37.
2. See Isaiah 1:17; 5:7; 42:4; 59:8; 59:15.
3. F. Brown, S. Driver, and C. Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon: Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 01961-3473, 1996, Strong’s No. 6486, p. 824.
4. Isaiah 9:12, 17, and 21.
5. Isaiah 5:25.
6. Doctrine and Covenants 124:8.
7. Verse 4 contains a chiasm recognized in the original Hebrew: They shall bow down/under the prisoners/under the slain/they shall fall. In Donald W. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 2001, p. 258.
8. Verses 4 and 5 contain a chiasm: His anger/his hand/rod/staff/their hand/mine indignation.
9. 2 Nephi 20:5.
10. Verses 4 through 6 contain a chiasm: Bow down/his anger/Assyrian/rod/mine anger/tread them down.
11. See Isaiah 8:3; see discussion by Donald W. Parry, Jay A. Parry and Tina M. Peterson, Understanding Isaiah: Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1998, p. 105.
12. 2 Nephi 20:10.
13. Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary: Merriam-Webster Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts, 1988, p. 487.
14. See Isaiah 46:1.
15. 2 Nephi 20:12.
16. See Isaiah 1:27; 3:16; 4:3-4; 8:18; 10:24; 12:6; 51:3.
17. 2 Nephi 20:13.
18. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 6086, p. 781.
19. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 5130, p. 245.
20. See Isaiah 1:7, 28; 5:24; 9:5, 18-19 and pertinent commentary.
21. See Isaiah 55:13; 5:6; 9:18; 27:4; 32:13 and pertinent commentary.
22. See Isaiah 9:5.
23. Verses 17 and 18 contain a chiasm: His thorns and his briers/glory of his forest/of his fruitful field/both soul and body.
24. See Isaiah 2:13; 9:18; 10:33-34; 14:8; 29:17; 32:15; 37:24; 55:12.
25. See Isaiah 8:7; 16:14; 17:3-4; 20:5; 21:16-17; 22:18; 66:12 and pertinent commentary.
26. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 8172, p. 1043.
27. Verses 20 and 21 contain a chiasm: Remnant of Israel/stay upon him that smote them/stay upon the LORD/ remnant shall return.
28. 2 Nephi 20:21
29. See Isaiah 7:3; also, see discussion by Donald W. Parry, Jay A. Parry and Tina M. Peterson, Understanding Isaiah: Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1998, p. 109.
30. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 3617, p. 478.
31. 2 Nephi 20:23.
32. Verses 22 and 23 contain a chiasm: Consumption/overflow/righteousness/the Lord GOD of hosts/shall make/ consumption.
33. See 2 Kings 18 and 19; also Isaiah 36 and 37.
34. See Isaiah 10:24, footnote 24b.
35. See Isaiah 1:27; 3:16; 4:3-4; 8:18; 10:12; 12:6; 51:3.
36. Verse 24 contains a chiasm: Assyrian/smite thee/rod/lift up his staff/against thee/Egypt.
37. See Isaiah 26:20; 30:29 and pertinent commentary.
38. See Judges 7.
39. Exodus 14:24-28.
40. See Genesis 22:9-12, 15-18.
41. See Genesis 49:10; 1 Kings 2:33; 1 Samuel 15:27-28.
42. See Bible Map 4.
43. See 2 Kings 19:21, 31; Psalms 9:14; 51:18; Isaiah 16:1; 37:22; 52:2; 62:11. Also, see Isaiah 1:27; 3:16; 4:3-4; 8:18; 10:12, 24; 12:6; 51:3.
44. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah, 2001, p. 71.
45. See Isaiah 2:13; 9:18; 10:18-19; 14:8; 29:17; 32:15; 37:24; 55:12.
46. 2 Kings 19:35-37.