Chapter 14, which continues the burden of doom upon Babylon which was begun in Chapter 13, contains five parts. The first, comprising verses 1 through 3, proclaims the Lord’s mercy on Israel who will be gathered and enjoy millennial rest. The second part, comprising verses 4 through 11, foretells the defeat and ignominy of the king of Babylon; and the third part, comprising verses 12 through 23, equates the king of Babylon with Lucifer who was cast out of heaven for rebellion. The fourth part, comprising verses 24 through 27, foretells and promises that the Lord will free His people from Assyrian aggression; and the fifth part, comprising verses 28 through 32, foretells the destruction of Palestine. This prophecy pertains both to ancient Babylon and the latter-day Babylon, meaning the sinful world before the Second Coming of the Lord. Nephi quotes this chapter in its entirety with variations in several verses. Compare 2 Nephi 24.

In verses 1 through 3 Isaiah proclaims the Lord’s mercy on Israel, who will be gathered and enjoy millennial rest. Verse 1 states: “For the LORD will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land: and the strangers shall be joined with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob.” “Strangers” is translated from a Hebrew word meaning “sojourners” or foreigners.1 Proselytes not of the Abrahamic covenant who would adhere to the true religion in the latter days would also help to fulfill the Abrahamic covenant.2

Verse 2 begins: “And the people shall take them, and bring them to their place.” The Book of Mormon adds a phrase at this point: “Yea, from far unto the ends of the earth; and they shall return to their lands of promise.3 The King James Version continues with “and the house of Israel shall possess them in the land of the LORD for servants and handmaids: and they shall take them captives, whose captives they were; and they shall rule over their oppressors.” This verse foretells the gathering of the remnants of Israel in the latter days; no longer will they be oppressed, but will rule over those who oppressed them.

Verses 1 and 2 contain a chiasm:

(1) For the LORD will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel,
A: and set them in their own land:
B: and the strangers shall be joined with them,
C: and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob.
D: (2) And the people shall take them,
D: and bring them to their place: yea, from far unto the ends of the earth; and they shall return to their lands of promise.
C: And the house of Israel
B: shall possess them
A: in the land of the LORD for servants and handmaids….

“In their own land” compares with “in the land of the LORD.” The land promised to the children of Israel is declared to be the land of the Lord. “And the strangers shall be joined with them” complements “shall possess them,” stating that their former oppressors will be servants to the children of Israel. “House of Jacob” is equivalent to “house of Israel;” “take them” matches “bring them to their place.” Israel will be restored to her own lands, having gained the victory over her oppressors. Israel’s former oppressors who would join with the house of Jacob will serve her.

Verse 3 continues “And it shall come to pass in the day that the LORD shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy fear, and from the hard bondage wherein thou wast made to serve—”4 The Book of Mormon renders: And it shall come to pass in that day….”5 The next verse continues the sentence, but the subject changes.

Verses 4 through 11 foretell the defeat and ignominy of the king of Babylon. Verse 4 continues the sentence begun in verse 3: “That thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!” “Proverb” means “ethical maxim” or “poem.”6 The Book of Mormon adds “And it shall come to pass in that day” at the beginning of this verse,7 indicating that at least some of the prophecy would be fulfilled in the latter days. The “proverb” or poem comprises all of verses 4 through 21.

Verse 5 states, “The LORD hath broken the staff of the wicked, and the sceptre of the rulers.” The Book of Mormon uses “the sceptres of the rulers.”8 Parallelism in this sentence leads to the conclusion that the vanquished rulers were steeped in wickedness, with the Lord destroying their corrupt regimes.

Verse 6 continues: “He who smote the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, and none hindereth.” “With a continual stroke” means this wicked ruler would continuously inflict pain and injury upon the people. This statement describes the wickedness both of the ancient king of Babylon and his modern counterpart.

Verse 7 describes conditions following defeat of the tyrant: “The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet: they break forth into singing.” No one mourns the loss of this archtyrant.

Verse 8 uses a metaphor of trees9 to describe the great relief felt by the rulers of lesser nations: “Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.” The Book of Mormon renders: “and also the cedars of Lebanon…”10 “Feller” comes from a Hebrew word meaning “tree-cutter.”11“Fir trees” is translated from a Hebrew word meaning “cypress,” “juniper,” “fir” or “pine.”12

This metaphor was used earlier by Isaiah, in Chapter 2:

For the day of the LORD of hosts shall be upon every one that is proud and lofty, and upon every one that is lifted up; and he shall be brought low:
And upon all the cedars of Lebanon, that are high and lifted up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan….13

Note that the first sentence provides the interpretation for the metaphor.

Verse 9 continues the speech of the rulers of lesser nations: “Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming: it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations.”

“Hell” is translated from the Hebrew word sheol, meaning the underworld or the world of departed spirits.14 The original meaning does not connote a state of punishment.

In verse 10, the princes of the earth continue deriding the king of Babylon: “Art thou also become weak as we? art thou become like unto us?” The Book of Mormon adds: “All they shall speak and say unto thee…” at the beginning of the verse.15

Verses 8 through 10 contain a chiasm:

A: (8) Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee,
B: and the cedars of Lebanon, saying,
C: Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.
D: (9) Hell from beneath is moved for thee
E: to meet thee
E: at thy coming:
D: it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth;
C: it hath raised up from their thrones
B: all the kings of the nations.
A: (10) All they shall speak and say unto thee, Art thou also become weak as we? art thou become like unto us?

“The fir trees rejoice at thee” matches “all they [the kings] shall speak and say unto thee.” “Cedars of Lebanon” is equivalent to “kings of the nations;” note here Isaiah’s key to the symbolism of the trees, which represent kings of the nations. “Laid down” contrasts with “raised up;” “hell from beneath is moved for thee” complements “it stirreth up the dead for thee,” illustrating the correct meaning of “hell” or sheol; and “meet thee at thy coming” forms the central focus of the chiasm. Rulers of nations threatened by the king of Babylon rejoice at his demise.

The princes’ mockery of the dead king of Babylon continues in verse 11: “Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee.” The Book of Mormon renders “the noise of thy viols is not heard.”16

Verses 12 through 23 liken the king of Babylon to Lucifer, who was cast out of heaven for rebellion. Not only does this prophecy relate to the ancient Babylonian king; there will be a modern equivalent who has, as yet, not been made manifest. This modern equivalent will be as devoted to advancing Satan’s purposes as was the ancient king of Babylon.

Verse 12 is a prophetic lament: “How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!” The Book of Mormon omits the second “how,” beginning a new sentence with “art.”17 The king of Babylon is here typified by Lucifer, a fallen son of the morning. “Lucifer” comes from a Hebrew word meaning “light-bearer” or “morning star;”18 thus the name “Lucifer” describes the high position in the premortal world from which he fell through rebellion to become Satan. Lucifer’s  death was spiritual whereas the king of Babylon’s death was physical.

Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon were shown the fall of Lucifer and the origin of Satan in a great vision:

And this we saw also, and bear record, that an angel of God who was in authority in the presence of God, who rebelled against the Only Begotten Son whom the Father loved and who was in the bosom of the Father, was thrust down from the presence of God and the Son,
And was called Perdition, for the heavens wept over him—he was Lucifer, a son of the morning.
And we beheld, and lo, he is fallen! is fallen, even a son of the morning!”19

Verses 11 and 12 contain a chiasm:

A: (11) Thy pomp is brought down
B: to the grave, and the noise of thy viols is not heard:
C: the worm is spread under thee,
C: and the worms cover thee.
B: (12) How are thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning!
A: how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!

In this chiasm Lucifer’s expulsion from heaven is a type for the death of the king of Babylon. “Brought down” is equivalent to “cut down to the ground;” “to the grave” matches “how are thou fallen from heaven;” and “the worm is spread under thee” matches “and the worms cover thee.” Lucifer’s was a spiritual death; the king of Babylon’s was a physical death.

Verse 12 contains a chiasm:

A: (12) How art thou fallen from heaven,
B: O Lucifer,
B: son of the morning!
A: how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!

“How art thou fallen from heaven” is equivalent to “how art thou cut down to the ground;” note that the first phrase refers to Lucifer but that the equivalent phrase refers to the king of Babylon. “Lucifer” is synonymous with “son of the morning,” providing a definition. Lucifer was one of the eldest of Heavenly Father’s spirit children, who enjoyed great honor and power in the premortal world before his ignominious fall. In like manner, the king of Babylon enjoyed great glory and honor before his demise.

Verses 13 and 14 continue the “proverb,” or moral maxim, by describing Lucifer’s arrogance and rebellion. Verse 13 states: “For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north.” According to Babylonian belief, the north was the dwelling-place of the gods.20 Lucifer’s blind ambition is a type for that of the king of Babylon.

Verse 14 continues: “I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.” Both Lucifer and the king of Babylon sought to exalt themselves, to be like God.

Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon were also shown Satan’s rebellion and enmity toward the saints of God: “[W]e beheld Satan, that old serpent, even the devil, who rebelled against God, and sought to take the kingdom of our God and his Christ—Wherefore, he maketh war with the saints of God, and encompasseth them round about.”21

The Lord explains further:

And it came to pass that Adam, being tempted of the devil—for, behold, the devil was before Adam, for he rebelled against me, saying, Give me thine honor, which is my power; and also a third part of the hosts of heaven turned he away from me because of their agency;
And they were thrust down, and thus came the devil and his angels;
And, behold, there is a place prepared for them from the beginning, which place is hell.
And it must needs be that the devil should tempt the children of men, or they could not be agents unto themselves; for if they never should have bitter they could not know the sweet.22

Verses 13 and 14 contain a chiasm:

A: (13) For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend
B: into heaven,
C: I will exalt my throne above the stars of God:
C: I will sit also
B: upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:
A: (14) I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.

“I will ascend” matches “I will ascend above the heights of the clouds;” “into heaven” compares with “upon the mount of the congregation;” and “I will exalt my throne” reflects “I will sit.” Lucifer’s desires to “ascend into heaven” and to exalt his throne “above the stars of God” is like the king of Babylon’s desire to “sit upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north.” For both, their greatest desire was to “ascend above the heights of the clouds,” to be “like the most High.” Obtaining unequaled power was the great motivator for each.

Modern revelation provides additional details about the fall of Lucifer:

And I, the Lord God, spake unto Moses, saying: That Satan, whom thou hast commanded in the name of mine Only Begotten, is the same which was from the beginning, and he came before me, saying—Behold, here am I, send me, I will be thy son, and I will redeem all mankind, that one soul shall not be lost, and surely I will do it; wherefore give me thine honor.
But, behold, my Beloved Son, which was my Beloved and Chosen from the beginning, said unto me—Father, thy will be done, and the glory be thine forever.
Wherefore, because that Satan rebelled against me, and sought to destroy the agency of man, which I, the Lord God, had given him, and also, that I should give unto him mine own power; by the power of mine Only Begotten, I caused that he should be cast down;
And he became Satan, yea, even the devil, the father of all lies, to deceive and to blind men, and to lead them captive at his will, even as many as would not hearken unto my voice.23

Elder Joseph Anderson explained this passage:

We are given to understand that whereas in the preexistence, in that spiritual estate, the spirits had their free agency, there were different degrees of obedience, various grades of righteousness. Lucifer exercised his free agency when he rebelled against the Father, but he had to pay the penalty for that rebellion and is still doing so, as are those spirits who followed him. They were denied the privilege of taking upon themselves mortality, and this has been a great curse and disappointment to them.24

Continuing with verse 15, the king of Babylon and his modern equivalent are further scorned: “Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.”

Verses 13 through 15 contain a chiasm:

(13) For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation,

A:  in the sides of the north:
B: (14) I will ascend above the heights of the clouds;
C: I will be like the most High.
C: (15) Yet thou shalt be
B: brought down to hell,
A: to the sides of the pit.

Paired elements of the chiasm form a series of literary foils. “Sides of the north” contrasts with “sides of the pit.” “Ascend above the heights of the clouds” is opposite to “brought down to hell;” and “I will be” contradicts “thou shalt be.” The ascending side of the chiasm describes lofty but evil ambitions that characterize both Lucifer and the king of Babylon; the descending side reveals the resulting ignominious outcome.

Verses 16 and 17 pose a rhetorical question. Verse 16 states: “They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms—”25 The Book of Mormon renders “…shall consider thee, and shall say….”26 This statement refers to the fallen king of Babylon and his modern equivalent. “Narrowly look” is translated from a Hebrew word meaning “squint.”27

Verse 17 completes the rhetorical question begun in verse 16: “That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?” This archtyrant destroyed cities, held prisoners, and depopulated the world behind him. Fear, or terror, was the preeminent influence exerted by the dethroned despot.

Verses 18 and 19 contrast the treatment of the vanquished king of Babylon with the burials of other kings. Verse 18 begins: “All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, every one in his own house.” The Book of Mormon substitutes “…yea, all of them….”28 “His own house” means “his family sepulchre.”29

Verse 19 continues the comparison: “But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet.” The Book of Mormon renders “and the remnant of those that are slain….”30 Here it is easy to visualize the clothing of those slain in battle being discarded as worthless. However, the Book of Mormon’s rendition of “remnant” warrants further comparison. Note that “branch” is chiastically equivalent to “raiment” or “remnant,” with the Book of Mormon rendition the more logical choice. It leaves little room for the possibility that the Book of Mormon rendition resulted from a transcription error. “Abominable branch” means “a rejected branch, pruned off and discarded.”31

Verse 20 reveals the reason for this ignominy: “Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people: the seed of evildoers shall never be renowned.”

Verses 17 through 20 contain a chiasm:

A: (17) That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners? (18) All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, every one in his own house.
B: (19) But thou art cast out of thy grave
C: like an abominable
D:  branch,
D: and as the remnant
C: of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet.
B: (20) Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial,
A: because thou hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people: the seed of evildoers shall never be renowned.

“Made the world as a wilderness” complements “destroyed thy land, and slain thy people;” “thou art cast out of thy grave” is clarified by “thou shalt not be joined with them in burial;” “abominable” is explained as “those that are slain, thrust through with a sword;” and “branch” is synonymous with “remnant,” which form the central focus of the chiasm. Note that the central statements are synonymous when the Book of Mormon wording, shown in italics, is used.

Verse 21 continues: “Prepare slaughter for his children for the iniquity of their fathers; that they do not rise, nor possess the land, nor fill the face of the world with cities.”32 The Book of Mormon renders “…for the iniquities of their fathers….”33 Not only was the king of Babylon destroyed and his corpse desecrated; his children were to be slaughtered as well, so that another evil generation might not arise to resume an evil regime.34 The divinely-mandated treatment for deposed archtyrants and their heirs is extermination, to prevent the rise of another evil dynasty.

The Lord is behind this seemingly cruel atrocity, as explained in verse 22: “For I will rise up against them, saith the LORD of hosts, and cut off from Babylon the name, and remnant, and son, and nephew, saith the LORD.”

Verses 21 and 22 contain a chiasm:

A: (21) Prepare slaughter for his children
B: for the iniquity of their fathers;
C: that they do not rise,
D: nor possess the land,
D: nor fill the face of the world with cities.
C: (22) For I will rise up against them, saith the LORD of hosts,
B: and cut off from Babylon
A: the name, and remnant, and son, and nephew, saith the LORD.

“His children” complements “the name, and remnant, and son, and nephew,” providing an expanded meaning. “Iniquity of their fathers” compares with “Babylon.” This symbolic meaning is well known, but here Isaiah establishes the connotation through the structure of the chiasm. “That they do not rise” contrasts with “for I will rise up against them,” which describes the Lord’s purpose for the decreed destruction. “Nor possess the land” matches “nor fill the face of the world with cities,” which form the central focus and describe the desired outcome.

Verse 23 reminds us that Babylon would never again be inhabited: “I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water: and I will sweep it with the besom of destruction, saith the LORD of hosts.”35 “Bittern” is a brownish wetlands bird with long legs for wading. “Bittern” is translated into English from a Hebrew word meaning “porcupine;”36 “besom” means “broom.”37

The fourth part of this chapter, comprising verses 24 through 27, represents an abrupt change in subject matter. It foretells and promises that the Lord will free His people from Assyrian aggression. Isaiah foretold this event earlier, in Chapter 10.38 The ancient fulfillment of this prophecy is recorded in 2 Kings 18 and 19 and in Isaiah 36 and 37.

Verses 24 and 25 describe the destruction of the Assyrians. Verse 24 begins: “The LORD of hosts hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass; and as I have purposed, so shall it stand.” The Lord swears that it will be as He thought and as He planned, that He will defeat the Assyrian army.

Verse 25 continues the sentence: “That I will break the Assyrian in my land, and upon my mountains tread him under foot: then shall his yoke depart from off them, and his burden depart from off their shoulders.” 39 The Book of Mormon substitutes bring for “break.”40 “On my land, and upon my mountains” means that it was to happen in Judah;41 furthermore, it would result in the end of Judah’s subordination to Assyria.

The fulfillment of this prophecy occurred when 185,000 men of the Assyrian army were slain during the night by the angel of the Lord, as they were laying siege to the city of Jerusalem:

And it came to pass that night, that the angel of the LORD went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred fourscore and five thousand: and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses.
So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh.
And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword: and they escaped into the land of Armenia. And Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead.42

Verse 26 states: “This is the purpose that is purposed upon the whole earth: and this is the hand that is stretched out upon all the nations.” The “purpose” is that eventually all the worldly nations will be overthrown thus.43 This event, although fulfilled anciently, is therefore a type for similar events in the latter days.

Verse 27 reasserts the Lord’s will, as in verse 24: “For the LORD of hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul it? and his hand is stretched out, and who shall turn it back?”44 The Book of Mormon omits “it,” to render “…and who shall disannul?” and inserts “when” to render “and when his hand is stretched out….”45 “Disannul” means “to annul utterly, to make void.”46

The final part of this chapter, comprising verses 28 through 32, foretells the destruction of Palestine. Verse 28 states: “In the year that king Ahaz died was this burden.” A burden is a message of doom lifted up against a people.47 The year that King Ahaz died was about 730 B.C.48

For some time the Philistines had been subjugated by Judah; however, in verse 29, the Philistines are cautioned not to rejoice over Judah’s eventual downfall: “Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the rod of him that smote thee is broken.” “Palestina” comes from the Hebrew word meaning “land of the Philistines” or “land of the sojourners.”49 Continuing: “for out of the serpent’s root shall come forth a cockatrice, and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent.” The meaning is that although Judah would be subjugated and eventually destroyed, Palestine’s subsequent oppressors would be progressively worse, ultimately resulting in her destruction. Thus, Palestine would have no reason to exult over Judah’s destruction.

Verse 30 continues: “And the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down in safety.”50 Despite Judah’s foretold destruction at the hands of the king of Babylon, she would again be established; her poor and needy would be nurtured by good rulers. On the other hand, wicked Palestina will be annihilated: “and I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall slay thy remnant.” “Root” means ancestors; “remnant” means descendants. The voice is that of Jehovah; invading armies would act as proxy in fulfilling the Lord’s will.

Continuing with verse 31: “Howl, O gate; cry, O city; thou, whole Palestina, art dissolved: for there shall come from the north a smoke, and none shall be alone in his appointed times.” The final phrase in this verse reveals that this “smoke” is a well-disciplined army. The phrase “none shall be alone in his appointed times” is rendered differently in various Biblical translations. In the Basic English Bible it is rendered “everyone keeps his place in the line,” and in the New American Standard it is rendered “there are no stragglers in his ranks.”51

Verses 29 through 31 contain a chiasm:

A: (29) Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the rod of him that smote thee is broken:
B: for out of the serpent’s root shall come forth a cockatrice, and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent.
C: (30) And the firstborn of the poor shall feed,
C: and the needy shall lie down in safety:
B: and I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall slay thy remnant.
A: (31) Howl, O gate; cry, O city; thou, whole Palestina, art dissolved: for there shall come from the north a smoke, and none shall be alone in his appointed times.

“Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina” matches “Howl, O gate; cry, O city; thou, whole Palestina art dissolved” which foretell the destruction of Palestine. “The serpent’s root” complements “I will kill thy root,” indicating that Palestine’s total destruction at the hand of Assyria would occur under a tyrannical ruler who would be worse than his two predecessors. “The firstborn of the poor shall feed” corresponds to “the needy shall lie down in safety,” which form the central focus of the chiasm. Despite Palestine being destroyed by an invading army, Judah would eventually be restored, with the Lord caring for her poor and needy.

Verse 32 augments the meaning of verse 30: “What shall one then answer the messengers of the nation? That the LORD hath founded Zion, and the poor of his people shall trust in it.” The Book of Mormon omits “one” and pluralizes “nation,” rendering “What shall then answer the messengers of the nations?52 In other words, “what will the emissaries of various nations report concerning the destruction of Palestina?” The answer, from the final sentence, is: “That the LORD hath founded Zion, and the poor of his people shall trust in it.” The Lord will sustain His righteous people in their need; personal righteousness is the key to survival. The meaning of “Zion” here is Jerusalem under righteous rule; also, it means a place of latter-day spiritual gathering.53

 


Notes:

1. F. Brown, S. Driver, and C. Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon: Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 01961-3473, 1996, Strong’s No. 1616, p. 158.
2. See Genesis 22:15-18.
3. 2 Nephi 24:2.
4. Verses 2 and 3 contain a chiasm: Servants and handmaids/whose captives they were/sorrow/fear/hard bondage/ serve.
5. 2 Nephi 24:3.
6. Brown et al., 1996, 1996, Strong’s No. 4912, p. 605.
7. 2 Nephi 24:4.
8. 2 Nephi 24:5.
9. See Isaiah 2:13; 9:18; 10:18-19, 33-34; 29:17; 32:15; 37:24; 55:12.
10. 2 Nephi 24:8.
11. Isaiah 14:8, footnote 8c.
12. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 1265, p. 141.
13. Isaiah 2:12-13. See Isaiah 9:18; 10:18-19, 33-34; 29:17; 32:15; 37:24; 55:12.
14. Isaiah 14:11, footnote 11a; see Bible Dictionary—Hell.
15. 2 Nephi 24:10.
16. 2 Nephi 24:11.
17. 2 Nephi 24:12.
18. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 1966, p. 237.
19. Doctrine and Covenants 76:25-27.
20. See Isaiah 14:13, footnote 13e.
21. Doctrine and Covenants 76:28-29.
22. Doctrine and Covenants 29:36-39.
23. Moses 4:1-4.
24. Joseph Anderson, “A Testimony of Christ,” Ensign, Nov. 1974, p. 101.
25. Verse 16 contains a chiasm: Earth/tremble/shake/kingdoms.
26. 2 Nephi 24:16.
27. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 7200, p. 906; see also Isaiah 14:16, footnote 16b.
28. 2 Nephi 24:18.
29. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 1004, p. 108.
30. 2 Nephi 24:19.
31. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 5432, p. 666; see also Isaiah 14:19, footnote 19a.
32. Verses 20 and 21 contain a chiasm: Because thou hast destroyed thy land/seed of evildoers/slaughter for his children/do not rise, nor possess the land.
33. 2 Nephi 24:21.
34. See Isaiah 14:21, footnote 21a.
35. See Isaiah 13:19-22; see also Isaiah 34:11-15.
36. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 7090, p. 891.
37. Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary: Merriam-Webster Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts, 1988, p. 145.
38. Isaiah 10:24-34.
39. Verse 25 contains a chiasm recognized in the original Hebrew: From off them/yoke depart/burden depart/from off their shoulders. In Donald W. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 2001, p. 259.
40. 2 Nephi 24:25.
41. “Mountain” means “nation;” see Isaiah 2:2, 14 and 2 Nephi 12:2, 14; Isaiah 11:9; 13:2, 4; 30:25 and pertinent commentary.
42. 2 Kings 19:35-37. See also Isaiah 10:33-34 and pertinent discussion.
43. See Isaiah 14:26, footnote 26b.
44. Verses 24 through 27 contain a chiasm: Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass/I will bring the Assyrian in my land/upon my mountains tread him under foot/his yoke depart/his burden depart/this is the purpose that is purposed upon the whole earth/this is the hand that is stretched out upon all the nations/the LORD of hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul it?
45. 2 Nephi 24:24.
46. Ernest Klein, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language: Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, 1971, p. 218.
47. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 4853, p. 672.
48. See Bible Dictionary—Chronology.
49. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 6429, p. 814.
50. Verse 30 contains two chiasms recognized in the original Hebrew: Shall feed/poor/needy/shall lie down in safety; thy root/I will kill/he shall slay/thy remnant. In Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah, 2001, p. 259.
51. A wide array of Bible translations is available from “The Unbound Bible,” online at http://unbound.biola.edu.
52. 2 Nephi 24:32.
53. See Isaiah 1:8 and pertinent commentary. See also Psalms 102:13, 16; 129:5; 132:13; Isaiah 1:27; 2:3; 4:5; 24:23; 28:16; 31:9; 35:10; 46:13; 51:16; 52:7, 8; 59:20.

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