In Chapter 30 Isaiah declares that Israel is to be scattered for rejecting the prophets. Their trust in the strength of Egypt at a time of danger from Assyria would be profitless. Judah and Israel would be smitten, broken and scattered for their perversity. However, this prophecy applies to the latter days as well: The Lord will be gracious to repentant Israel in the latter days, setting her up as a beacon on top of a mountain and as an ensign on a hill. A latter-day outpouring of inspiration and blessings upon many nations would follow a great slaughter, when towers would fall. The Lord will come in a day of apostasy to judge and destroy the wicked.
Verses 1 through 5 are a woe oracle, decrying the rebellion of the nation of Judah and stating that her efforts at obtaining assistance from Egypt against the threat of Assyria would be of no avail. Verse 1 begins: “Woe to the rebellious children, saith the LORD, that take counsel, but not of me; and that cover with a covering, but not of my spirit, that they may add sin to sin—” Judah would establish alliances contrary to the will of the Lord and against the admonitions of prophets. Israel’s objective in seeking help from Egypt was to “add sin to sin,” or to be able to continue in their licentious practices without consequences.
Verse 2 continues the sentence of verse 1: “That walk to go down into Egypt, and have not asked at my mouth; to strengthen themselves in the strength of Pharaoh, and to trust in the shadow of Egypt!” The Lord’s “mouth” is the prophet whom they did not consult. “My mouth” contrasts chiastically with “Pharaoh;”1 the Lord is displeased with Israel’s ill-advised action.
Verse 3 begins the Lord’s description of the consequences for this action: “Therefore shall the strength of Pharaoh be your shame, and the trust in the shadow of Egypt your confusion.” The alliance sought with Egypt would result in Judah’s shame and dishonor.
Verse 4 gives the timing of these consequences: “For his princes were at Zoan, and his ambassadors came to Hanes.” Isaiah uses the past tense as though recounting a vision shown to him by the Lord; the statement foretells events that would occur after the time of Isaiah’s declaration. Zoan is a large city in the Nile delta, whereas Hanes is a smaller city in the same region of Egypt. Jerusalem’s delegation would meet with the Egyptians at these localities.
Verse 5 continues: “They were all ashamed of a people that could not profit them, nor be an help nor profit, but a shame, and also a reproach.”2 Egypt would not be able (or willing) to help Judah in protecting her against Assyria. In the latter days, the modern superpower equivalent of Egypt—America3—would not be willing to assist Israel when the modern equivalent of Assyria threatens to attack. Judah’s appeal to Egypt would be rejected, since Egypt would derive no benefit from providing support and protection to Judah.
Verses 6 and 7 are a burden of doom for Judah’s representatives who travel with loads of gifts on animals toward Egypt. Verse 6 declares: “The burden of the beasts of the south: into the land of trouble and anguish, from whence come the young and old lion, the viper and fiery flying serpent, they will carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures upon the bunches of camels, to a people that shall not profit them.” The Hebrew word translated as “the south” is negeb.4 The animals mentioned symbolize the treachery of ancient Egypt and its modern analog. They also represent hazards of the desert through which the delegation bearing gifts for Egypt would pass, and through which ancient Israel was led safely by Moses’ inspiration from the Lord. Egypt will not help Judah against Assyria despite the treasures provided. Isaiah’s description of a “land of trouble and anguish” does not bode well for Egypt’s modern superpower equivalent, America.
Verses 3 through 6 contain a series of linked chiasms in which the central statement of one is the introductory statement for the next.5 The focal point of the whole sequence is “a people that shall not profit them.” This sequence is similar to a lengthy “if…then” inductive logic statement, which concludes that Egypt would be of no profit to Judah.
In verse 7 the Lord foretells: “For the Egyptians shall help in vain, and to no purpose: therefore have I cried concerning this, Their strength is to sit still.” To “sit still” means to take no action toward establishing an alliance with Egypt,6 but to rely on the Lord as instructed by the prophet.
In verse 8 the Lord further instructs Isaiah: “Now go, write it before them in a table, and note it in a book, that it may be for the time to come for ever and ever”7—indicating that this prophecy regarding the folly of depending upon Egypt for protection from Assyria applies particularly to equivalent nations at a later time. The Lord commands him to write it down so that it would be available “for ever and ever,” for the guidance of those at that future time.
Verse 8 is also the beginning of a lawsuit which Isaiah is instructed to write, with the indictment portion comprising verses 8 through 12. Verses 13 through 17 present the penalty portion.
Verse 9 continues the sentence from the previous verse: “That this is a rebellious people, lying children, children that will not hear the law of the LORD—”
Verse 10 continues the indictment: “Which say to the seers, See not; and to the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things, speak unto us smooth things, prophesy deceits—” Instead of the truth which is hard for the wicked to bear,8 they sought for lies and deceit. Smooth things” is translated from a Hebrew word meaning “flattering things.”9
Verse 11 further describes the people’s rebellious nature: “Get you out of the way, turn aside out of the path, cause the Holy One of Israel to cease from before us.” This is knowing rejection—not in ignorance—of the Lord’s leadership of Judah and Israel as nations. This condition contrasts with the exodus of Israel from Egypt when the Lord “went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light; to go by day and night.”10 The “path” and the “way” referred to in verse 11 is the “strait and narrow way.”11
Verses 9 through 11 form a chiasm:
A: (9) That this is a rebellious people, lying children, children that will not hear the law of the LORD:
B: (10) Which say to the seers, See not; and to the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things,
C: speak unto us smooth things,
C: prophesy deceits:
B: (11) Get you out of the way, turn aside out of the path,
A: cause the Holy One of Israel to cease from before us.
Prophesy not unto us right things” is equivalent to “get you out of the way, turn aside out of the path,” meaning the strait and narrow way to salvation. “Speak unto us smooth things” and “prophesy deceits” comprise the matching central statements. Conversely, being in the “way” or “path” implies the people giving heed to seers and prophets who see and prophesy right things.
Verse 12 summarizes the indictment: “Wherefore thus saith the Holy One of Israel, Because ye despise this word, and trust in oppression and perverseness, and stay thereon—” Judah has cast away her reliance on the word of the Lord and placed her confidence in violence and iniquity.
Verses 13 through 17 present the penalty portion of the lawsuit. Verse 13 begins: “Therefore this iniquity shall be to you as a breach ready to fall, swelling out in a high wall, whose breaking cometh suddenly at an instant.” This is one of two similes used by Isaiah to illustrate the downfall of rebellious Israel and Judah. The suddenness of the downfall is likened to a high wall that begins to bulge, then collapses precipitously. The wall symbolizes the Lord’s protection around the people, which would be removed suddenly.
Verse 14 presents another simile, this one illustrating the completeness of the destruction: “And he shall break it as the breaking of the potters’ vessel that is broken in pieces; he shall not spare: so that there shall not be found in the bursting of it a sherd to take fire from the hearth, or to take water withal out of the pit.”
Verse 15 summarizes the indictment once again: “For thus saith the Lord GOD, the Holy One of Israel; In returning and rest shall ye be saved; in quietness and in confidence shall be your strength: and ye would not.” “Returning and rest” means repentance and forgiveness, indicating that this is the path to salvation. But repentance and forgiveness are rejected by rebellious Israel and Judah.
Verse 16 illustrates the flawed thinking of the unrepentant: “But ye said, No; for we will flee upon horses; therefore shall ye flee: and, We will ride upon the swift; therefore shall they that pursue you be swift.” Rebellious Israel thinks she can escape the advances of Assyria by fleeing upon swift horses. The Lord points out that this is folly, stating that their pursuers would ride upon horses equally as swift.
Verse 17 forms a transition between the lawsuit of verses 8 through 16 and a description of the gathering and exaltation of Israel in the latter days, which comprises the rest of the chapter. Verse 17 begins: “One thousand shall flee at the rebuke of one; at the rebuke of five shall ye flee: till ye be left as a beacon upon the top of a mountain, and as an ensign on an hill.” This verse has dual meaning. First, it refers to Israel being mercilessly driven from place to place, a thousand being routed by a single Assyrian warrior, in consequence of the matters summarized in the preceding lawsuit. But it also means that eventually Israel would be left in the glorious position of being set as a “beacon upon…a mountain,” or “as an ensign on a hill.” “Mountain” and “hill” mean “nation.”12
Isaiah uses the same symbolism earlier, to describe the gathering of Israel in the latter days: “And he will lift up an ensign to the nations from far, and will hiss unto them from the end of the earth: and, behold, they shall come with speed swiftly.”13
In verse 18 Isaiah extolls the Lord’s magnanimity toward repentant Israel in the latter days: “And therefore will the LORD wait, that he may be gracious unto you, and therefore will he be exalted, that he may have mercy upon you: for the LORD is a God of judgment: blessed are all they that wait for him.” “Judgment” means “justice” as used in this verse.14 The meaning of this verse is that the Lord awaits the time that His people repent and become righteous before He will bestow His grace upon them.
Elder Marion D. Hanks expounds upon the meaning of verse 18:
I am one who believes that God loves and will never cease to love all of his children, and that he will not cease to hope for us or reach for us or wait for us….
And yet over the earth, across the years, I have met some of God’s choicest children who find it very difficult to believe in their hearts that he really means them. They know that he is the source of comfort and pardon and peace and that they must seek him and open the door for him and accept his love, and yet even in their extremity they find it difficult to believe that his promised blessings are for them. Some have offended God and their own consciences and are earnestly repentant but they find the way back blocked by their unwillingness to forgive themselves or to believe that God will forgive them, or sometimes by a strange reluctance in some of us to really forgive, to really forget, and to really rejoice.15
Verse 19 describes the state of those who wait for the Lord: “For the people shall dwell in Zion at Jerusalem: thou shalt weep no more: he will be very gracious unto thee at the voice of thy cry; when he shall hear it, he will answer thee.” The Lord hears and answers the prayers of the righteous. “Zion” as used in this verse means a place of latter-day spiritual gathering, as well as latter-day Jerusalem under righteous conditions.16 The definition of “Zion” may be substituted for greater meaning: “For the people shall dwell in purity of heart at Jerusalem….”
Verses 17 through 19 contain a chiasm:
A: (17) One thousand shall flee at the rebuke of one; at the rebuke of five shall ye flee: till ye be left as a beacon upon the top of a mountain,
B: and as an ensign on an hill.
C: (18) And therefore will the LORD
D: wait, that he may be
E: gracious unto you,
F: and therefore will he be exalted, that he may have mercy upon you:
F: for the LORD is a God of judgment:
E: blessed are all they
D: that wait
C: for him.
B: (19) For the people shall dwell in Zion
A: at Jerusalem: thou shalt weep no more….
The introductory statement, “a beacon upon the top of a mountain,” is reflected in “Jerusalem,” providing an explanation of Isaiah’s meaning. “An ensign on an hill” matches “Zion.” “The LORD” is equivalent to “him;” “gracious unto you” is equivalent to “blessed are all they;” and “exalted” matches “God of judgment.” Zion in the latter days will be as an ensign on a hill whereas Jerusalem will be as a beacon on the top of a mountain, both providing light to the world.
Verse 20 explains that the righteous will not be spared adversity: “And though the Lord give you the bread of adversity, and the water of affliction, yet shall not thy teachers be removed into a corner any more, but thine eyes shall see thy teachers.” Note Isaiah’s use of singular and plural pronouns. First, the Lord gives adversity and affliction collectively to the inhabitants of Zion—but then each person individually receives the blessings of inspired teachers, indicating that agency plays a pivotal role in how we respond to adversity.
This verse is the only instance in the scriptures describing “the bread of adversity” and “the water of affliction.” The Lord will give direction to the righteous—despite their floundering in adversity—by means of inspired teachers.
Verse 21 describes the guidance of the Spirit to the righteous: “And thine ears shall hear a word behind thee, saying, This is the way, walk ye in it, when ye turn to the right hand, and when ye turn to the left.” The Holy Ghost will give direction to the righteous as they walk the pathway of life. Turning to the right or the left means deviating from the strait and narrow way, whereupon the Spirit redirects us through the still, small voice.17 Again, note Isaiah’s use of singular and plural pronouns. The Holy Ghost interacts with each of us individually, but His instructions are given to all collectively.
In verse 22, the righteous will do away with idolatry: “Ye shall defile also the covering of thy graven images of silver, and the ornament of thy molten images of gold: thou shalt cast them away as a menstruous cloth; thou shalt say unto it, Get thee hence.”18 “Menstruous cloth” is a sign of uncleanness under the Law of Moses.19 Here Isaiah uses a plural pronoun to address the group of righteous as a whole, but then he reverts to singular pronouns to prescribe each individual’s response.
Isaiah, in Chapter 2, equates idolatry with materialism:
Their land also is full of silver and gold, neither is there any end of their treasures; their land is full of horses, neither is there any end of their chariots: Their land also is full of idols; they worship the work of their own hands, that which their own fingers have made.20
What is their land full of? Three parallel, equivalent statements provide an answer: “Silver and gold…treasures;” “horses…chariots;” “idols…the work of their own hands, that which their own fingers have made.” The prevalent form of latter-day idolatry—the worship of false gods—would be materialism.
The Lord’s blessings, both temporal and spiritual, will come to the righteous. Verse 23 attests: “Then shall he give the rain of thy seed, that thou shalt sow the ground withal; and bread of the increase of the earth, and it shall be fat and plenteous: in that day shall thy cattle feed in large pastures.” The Lord will provide rich temporal and spiritual blessings for the benefit of His righteous people.
Verses 20 through 23 contain a chiasm:
A: (20) And though the Lord give you the bread of adversity,
B: and the water of affliction,
C: yet shall not thy teachers be removed into a corner any more, but thine eyes shall see thy teachers:
D: (21) And thine ears shall hear a word behind thee, saying, This is the way, walk ye in it,
D: when ye turn to the right hand, and when ye turn to the left.
C: (22) Ye shall defile also the covering of thy graven images of silver, and the ornament of thy molten images of gold: thou shalt cast them away as a menstruous cloth; thou shalt say unto it, Get thee hence.
B: (23) Then shall he give the rain of thy seed, that thou shalt sow the ground withal;
A: and bread of the increase of the earth, and it shall be fat and plenteous: in that day shall thy cattle feed in large pastures.
The introductory statement, “bread of adversity,” contrasts with “bread of the increase of the earth.” “Water of affliction” contrasts with “rain of thy seed;” these show that although we may be afflicted the Lord will provide blessings. “Shall not thy teachers be removed into a corner any more” contrasts with “thou shalt cast them [thy graven images] away,” meaning inspired teachers take the place of idols in the lives of the righteous. “This is the way, walk ye in it” compares with “when ye turn to the right hand, and when ye turn to the left.” In the first, the Spirit defines the strait and narrow way for us to follow; the second describes the still, small voice of warning, heard when we deviate from the path. The message of this chiasm is that although we may face adversities and afflictions in life, if we cleanse ourselves from idolatry and heed the words of inspired teachers the Lord will provide the guidance of the Spirit as we walk life’s path.
Verse 24 continues: “The oxen likewise and the young asses that ear the ground shall eat clean provender, which hath been winnowed with the shovel and with the fan.” “Work the soil” is the Hebrew meaning for “ear the ground.”21 Temporal and spiritual blessings will abound for the righteous.
Verses 25 and 26 are best considered together on the basis of their chiastic structure, in which Isaiah foretells a traumatic latter-day event. However, as if to shield us from the bad news, he envelops the prophecy with good news about what would happen as a consequence of the event—a great slaughter when towers would fall:
A: (25) And there shall be upon every high mountain, and upon every high hill, rivers
B: and streams of waters
C: in the day of the great slaughter,
C: when the towers fall.
B: (26) Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun,
A: and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day that the LORD bindeth up the breach of his people, and healeth the stroke of their wound.
The central focus of this chiasm is “in the day of the great slaughter, when the towers fall.” The meaning of these paired phrases was forever emblazoned on the world-wide consciousness on September 11, 2001 when the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center fell under terrorist attack, resulting in a great slaughter in which thousands of people were killed. Now, in referring to the atrocities of that day, we have almost universally adopted the phrase “when the towers fell” whether or not we knew of Isaiah’s prophecy.
Verse 25 describes an abundance of spiritual blessings that would come as a result of the traumatic event and the wars that would ensue. “Water” is a metaphor meaning inspiration and blessings from heaven,22 whereas “mountains” and “hills” are metaphors meaning nations of the earth, both large and small.23 The meaning is that the nations of the earth would be blessed by a streaming flow of revelation and blessings.
Verse 26, using a different metaphor, further describes an abundance of inspiration and blessings from God that would be made available to the nations of the earth in that day. “The light of the moon” and “the light of the sun,” augmented sevenfold upon the earth following the falling of the towers and the great slaughter, also symbolize this outpouring of revelation and blessings. The chiastic structure tells us that the metaphors of verses 25 and 26 are the same—both are consequences of the event described in the central focus. Thus, Isaiah foretells a time of great spiritual awakening. The yoke of ignorance and superstition that enslaves many nations of the earth will be thrown off and the straight and narrow way will be made known unto them, permitting another phase of the latter-day gathering of the descendants of Israel.24 The Lord’s guidance and inspiration will also increase dramatically upon the righteous in that day, healing the affliction of their long exile25 and providing comfort to those who suffered great loss.
One way in which this great outpouring of guidance and inspiration would increase dramatically is the coming forth of the message of the Gospel through the internet and electronic devices, which has occurred largely since that time.
Concerning these momentous events President Gordon B. Hinckley, speaking a few weeks after the atrocities of September 11, 2001, said:
I am familiar, as are you, with the declarations of modern revelation that the time will come when the earth will be cleansed and there will be indescribable distress, with weeping and mourning and lamentation.26
Now I do not wish to be an alarmist. I do not wish to be a prophet of doom. I am optimistic. I do not believe the time is here when an all-consuming calamity will overtake us. I earnestly pray that it may not. There is so much of the Lord’s work yet to be done. We, and our children after us, must do it.27
This prophecy of Isaiah foretelling the fall of the towers, followed by a great outpouring of inspiration and blessings upon the nations of the earth, might not easily be understood except for its fulfillment. Nephi declared: “…nevertheless, in the days that the prophecies of Isaiah shall be fulfilled men shall know of a surety, at the times when they shall come to pass.”28 Similarly, many other prophecies of Isaiah will not be fully understood until they are fulfilled before our eyes.
Verses 27 and 28 describe the destruction accompanying the Lord’s Second Coming. Verse 27 begins the description: “Behold, the name of the LORD cometh from far, burning with his anger, and the burden thereof is heavy: his lips are full of indignation, and his tongue as a devouring fire.”29,30 “The name of the Lord” means “a symbol of the Lord’s power come to destroy wickedness.”31 Great destructions will befall the wicked while the righteous receive great blessings.
Verse 28 continues the description: “And his breath, as an overflowing stream, shall reach to the midst of the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of vanity: and there shall be a bridle in the jaws of the people, causing them to err.” The “overflowing stream” is symbolism used elsewhere in Isaiah’s writings to represent an invading army.32 The bridle, or bit, in the jaw of the people is to prevent, rather than to cause, the people to err.
Verse 29 describes the joy of the righteous survivors on that day: “Ye shall have a song, as in the night when a holy solemnity is kept; and gladness of heart, as when one goeth with a pipe to come into the mountain of the LORD, to the mighty One of Israel.” Despite the destruction taking place, the righteous—who give heed to the word of the Lord through His living prophet—will be protected.33 The Hebrew word translated as “when a holy solemnity is kept” means “the sanctifying of a feast day.”34 “Solemnity,” in turn, comes from a Latin word meaning “annual observance.”35 “Goeth with a pipe” means with a musical wind instrument, and “mountain of the Lord” has reference to the temple.36
Verse 30 continues: “And the LORD shall cause his glorious voice to be heard, and shall shew the lighting down of his arm, with the indignation of his anger, and with the flame of a devouring fire, with scattering, and tempest, and hailstones.” The voice of the Lord will be heard at the time of the destruction, similar to the Nephites hearing His voice as He declared the extent of the destruction in America at the time of the crucifixion, as recorded in the Book of Mormon.37 Expressions of the Lord’s anger, by which the destruction will come about, include fire,38 scattering, storms, and hailstones. All describe extraordinary natural disasters.
Verses 29 and 30 contain a chiasm:
A: (29) Ye shall have a song, as in the night when a holy solemnity is kept; and gladness of heart, as when one goeth with a pipe to come into the mountain of the LORD,
B: to the mighty One of Israel.
B: (30) And the LORD
A: shall cause his glorious voice to be heard….
“The mountain of the LORD” is linked to “his glorious voice to be heard,” meaning that the Lord’s voice will be heard at the temple, or the mountain of the Lord. “The mighty One of Israel” is equivalent to “the LORD,” providing a synonym.
Verse 31 declares: “For through the voice of the LORD shall the Assyrian be beaten down, which smote with a rod.” By means of the Lord’s voice the invading army of Assyria will be beaten down, in the same way that they assailed their victims with a rod.
Verse 32 continues: “And in every place where the grounded staff shall pass, which the LORD shall lay upon him, it shall be with tabrets and harps: and in battles of shaking will he fight with it.” The Hebrew word translated as “battles of shaking” means “with swinging or brandishing of weapons.”39
Verses 31 and 32 contain a chiasm:
A: (31) For through the voice of the LORD
B: shall the Assyrian
C: be beaten down,
C: which smote
B: with a rod.
A: (32) And in every place where the grounded staff shall pass, which the LORD shall lay upon him, it shall be with tabrets and harps: and in battles of shaking will he fight with it.
In this chiasm it is made clear that the Lord would wage battles in the latter days using His voice, as well as with tabrets and harps. The voice of the Lord—including divine inspiration and guidance—would be an instrument in the destruction of the latter-day equivalent of Assyria, who in contrast smote the people with a rod. Music in the latter-day kingdom of God would be a powerful influence for good.
Verse 33 describes the fate of the king of Assyria—and thereby symbolically the destruction of all the wicked: “For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is prepared; he hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it.” Tophet was a location in the valley of the son of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, where human sacrifices were offered to Molech.40 Righteous king Josiah defiled, or broke down, the idolatrous altar.41 Subsequently, the place became a site for burning of refuse.
1. Verse 2 contains a chiasm: Egypt/my mouth/strengthen/strength/Pharaoh/Egypt.
2. Verses 3 through 5 contain a chiasm: Shame/your confusion/his princes/his ambassadors/a people that could not profit them/shame.
3. See Isaiah 18 and pertinent commentary.
4. F. Brown, S. Driver, and C. Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon: Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 01961-3473, 1996, Strong’s No. 5045, p. 616.
5. Verses 4 through 6 contain a chiasm: Princes…Zoan…ambassadors… Hanes/ashamed/profit/profit/shame/south.
Verses 5 and 6 contain a chiasm: People that could not profit them/burden of the beasts of the south/trouble and anguish/lion…viper…fiery flying serpent/riches upon the shoulders of young asses…bunches of camels/people that shall not profit them.
Verse 6 contains a chiasm: Into the land of trouble and anguish/young and old lion/viper/fiery flying serpent/ shoulders of young asses…bunches of camels/people that shall not profit them.
6. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 7674, p. 992.
7. Verse 8 contains a chiasm recognized in the original Hebrew: Write it/in a table/in a book/note it. In Donald W. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 2001, p. 260.
8. 1 Nephi 16:2.
9. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 2513, p. 325.
10. See Exodus 13:20-22.
11. See Matthew 7:14; Doctrine and Covenants 132:22; also Isaiah 3:12; 8:11; 26:7-8; 28:7; 40:3 and pertinent commentary.
12. See Isaiah 30:25.
13. Isaiah 5:26.
14. See Isaiah 1:17; 5:7; 42:4; 59:15.
15. Marion D. Hanks, “He Means Me,” Ensign, May 1979, p. 74.
16. See Isaiah 3:16; 18:7; 24:23; 28:16; 29:8; 31:4, 9; 51:3.
17. See Doctrine and Covenants 85:6; 1 Kings 19:12; 1 Nephi 17:45.
18. Verse 22 contains a chiasm recognized in the original Hebrew: Ye shall defile/covering/graven images of silver/molten images of gold/ornament/thou shalt cast them away. In Donald W. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 2001, p. 260.
19. See Leviticus 15:19-20.
20. See Isaiah 2:7- 8 and pertinent commentary.
21. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 5647, p. 712.
22. See Isaiah 12:3; 35:6-7; 55:1, 11; 58:11 and pertinent commentary.
23. See Isaiah 2:2, 14 and 2 Nephi 12:2, 14; Isaiah 11:9; 13:2, 4 and pertinent commentary.
24. See Isaiah 11:15-16.
25. Isaiah 30:26, footnote 26a.
26. See Doctrine and Covenants 112:34.
27. Gordon B. Hinckley, “The Times in Which We Live:” The Ensign (Conference Report Issue), November 2001, pp 72-74.
28. 2 Nephi 25:7.
29. See Isaiah 1:7, 28; 30:30, 33; 33:11-12 and pertinent commentary.
30. Verse 27 contains a chiasm: Burning/anger/burden/heavy/indignation/devouring fire.
31. Isaiah 30:27, footnote 27a.
32. See Isaiah 8:7-8; 28:2; 59:19.
33. Compare Exodus 12:21-23; see also Isaiah 10:25; 26:20 and pertinent commentary.
34. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 2282, p. 290.
35. Ernest Klein, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language: Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, 1971, p. 696.
36. See Isaiah 2:3; 56:7; 65:11; 66:20 and pertinent commentary.
37. See 3 Nephi 9:1-22.
38. See references for Verse 27, above.
39. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 8573, p. 632.
40. Bible Dictionary—Topheth.
41. 2 Kings 23:10.