Chapter 43 foretells Israel’s eventual repentance and restoration in the latter days. In the first part of the chapter the Lord proclaims that He is God and that Israel, recipient of many blessings at His hand over their long existence as a people, are witnesses of His divinity. Next are presented prophecies of the gathering of repentant Israel and of great destructions among the wicked; these destructions are for the protection of the Lord’s people. The chapter concludes with the Lord stating that unrepentant Israel has forsaken His law, bringing great curses.

Chapter 43 contains chiasms that provide useful interpretive information and which provide logical divisions in the text.

Verses 1 through 7 foretell the gathering of Israel; Isaiah presents the prophecy poetically as three chiasms. In verse 1 the Lord states that despite the sins of Israel He has provided the means for redemption: “But now thus saith the LORD that created thee, O Jacob, and he that formed thee, O Israel, Fear not: for I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name; thou art mine.” “The LORD” means “Jehovah,” who is Jesus Christ. He is both Creator and Redeemer.

The role of Jesus Christ as Creator was set forth by the Apostle John:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
The same was in the beginning with God.
All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
In him was life; and the life was the light of men.
And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.1

“The Word” as used here by John means that Jehovah—the Lord Jesus Christ—is the Mouthpiece for God the Father.2  At the burning bush, the Lord revealed His name to Moses and told him what His name means:

And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them?
And God said unto Moses, I am that I am: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I am hath sent me unto you.3

The name “Jehovah” comes from the Hebrew YHWH, which is related to the verb “to be” or “I am.” The meaning is “the One who is.”4

The mortal Jesus Christ, addressing the Jews in the temple, asserted that He was the same Jehovah:

Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad.
Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?
Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.
Then took they up stones to cast at him: but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by.5

The Jews took Jesus’ statement as untrue, interpreting it as solemn blasphemy under the Law of Moses. For that reason the Jews sought to stone Him to death. Doubtless they remembered this statement at the time of His arraignment and crucifixion.

Verse 1 contains a chiasm:

A: (1) But now thus saith the LORD that created thee,
B: O Jacob, and he that formed thee, O Israel, Fear not:
C: for I have redeemed thee,
C: I have called thee
B: by thy name;
A: thou art mine.

In this chiasm the Lord attests that He is the Creator of Israel; Israel is therefore His own. He has redeemed and called Israel so that she might fulfill the Abrahamic covenant, becoming a blessing to all the world.6

In verses 2 through 4, the Lord reminds Israel of the miraculous crossing of the Red Sea and the destruction of Pharaoh’s armies, promising similar intervention in the future. Verse 2 commences: “When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee: when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; neither shall the flame kindle upon thee.” “When thou passest through the waters” recalls the parting of the Red Sea.7 “Rivers” also means “invading armies,8 and “fire” refers to the destruction by fire that will occur at the Lord’s Second Coming.9 The Lord promises defense and preservation for the righteous at His coming, just as He liberated the children of Israel from captivity in Egypt and preserved them.

Typical of the destructions by fire foretold at the Lord’s Second Coming, each of us may undergo fiery trials along the pathway of our own life. The Lord promises that these trials are for the purpose of refining us and not destroying us—removing the dross of sin and imperfections and refining the gold in each of us.

Verse 3 continues: “For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee.” Egypt’s armies, drowned in the Red Sea, are a ransom for Israel; the Lord has destroyed other nations to protect His righteous followers and will do so again in the future.

Verse 4 provides further explanation: “Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou hast been honourable, and I have loved thee: therefore will I give men for thee, and people for thy life.” The Lord, in Doctrine and Covenants, states: “Remember the worth of souls is great in the sight of God,”10 expressing similar concepts.

The Lord’s purpose in destroying the wicked is to protect the righteous, for which the drowning of the Egyptians in the Red Sea is a type. This concept is elaborated by the prophet Zenos, quoted by Jacob in the Book of Mormon:11

Wherefore, dig about them, [olive trees] and prune them, and dung them once more, for the last time, for the end draweth nigh. And if it be so that these last grafts shall grow, and bring forth the natural fruit, then shall ye prepare the way for them, that they may grow.
And as they begin to grow ye shall clear away the branches which bring forth bitter fruit, according to the strength of the good and the size thereof; and ye shall not clear away the bad thereof all at once, lest the roots thereof should be too strong for the graft, and the graft thereof shall perish, and I lose the trees of my vineyard (emphasis added).12

In this olive-tree allegory, the “branches which bring forth bitter fruit” are the wicked, which would be destroyed to make room for the righteous of Israel as they are gathered.

In verse 5 the Lord comforts the righteous of Israel: “Fear not: for I am with thee: I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west.” The Lord will protect and accompany those who are being gathered in the latter days.

Words from verses 2 through 5 are found in the text of a favorite hymn, “How Firm a Foundation.”13

Verses 2 through 5 contain a chiasm:

A: (2) When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee;
B: and through the rivers,
C: they shall not overflow thee:
D: when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned;
E: neither shall the flame kindle upon thee.
F: (3) For I am the LORD thy God,
F: the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour:
E: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee.
D: (4) Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou hast been honourable,
C: and I have loved thee:
B: therefore will I give men for thee, and people for thy life.
A: (5) Fear not: for I am with thee: I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west.

“Rivers” compares with “people,” reflecting the symbolic meaning of “rivers” as invading armies. “They shall not overflow thee” complements “I have loved thee: therefore will I give men for thee,” again reflecting the symbolism of rivers. “Thou shalt not be burned” corresponds to “since thou wast precious in my sight,” indicating that repentant Israel will be numbered among the righteous and not burned at the Lord’s Second Coming. “Neither shall the flame kindle upon thee” reflects “I gave Egypt for thy ransom,” recalling the destruction of the Egyptian armies in the crossing of the Red Sea14 and reiterating the protection that Israel will receive, leading up to the Second Coming.

Verse 6 continues the Lord’s description of the latter-day gathering of Israel: “I will say to the north, Give up; and to the south, Keep not back: bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth.” The cardinal points of the compass, used in verses 5 and 6, represent the lands to which the ten tribes were carried into captivity.15 “From the ends of the earth” means from the farthest, remotest points on the earth.16

Verses 5 and 6 are paraphrased by the resurrected Lord in the Book of Mormon. Speaking of the time “when the words of Isaiah would be fulfilled,” He said:

And then shall the remnants, which shall be scattered abroad upon the face of the earth, be gathered in from the east and from the west, and from the south and from the north; and they shall be brought to the knowledge of the Lord their God, who hath redeemed them.17

Verse 7 states: “Even every one that is called by my name: for I have created him for my glory, I have formed him; yea, I have made him.” The Lord expands upon this subject to the Nephites during His post-mortal ministry:

Have they not read the scriptures, which say ye must take upon you the name of Christ, which is my name? For by this name shall ye be called at the last day;
And whoso taketh upon him my name, and endureth to the end, the same shall be saved at the last day.18

A passage of scripture possibly referred to here by Jesus is in 2nd Chronicles:

If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land.19

In several other passages either definitely or probably in the possession of the Nephites,20 reference is made to the people being called by the Lord’s name.21 The sacrament prayers include a statement “that they are willing to take upon them the name of thy son.”22 Today, this means being recognized as a member of the Church that bears His name.

Verses 5 through 7 contain a chiasm:

A: (5) Fear not: for I am with thee:
B: I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west;
C: (6) I will say to the north, Give up;
C: and to the south, Keep not back:
B: bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth;
A: (7) Even every one that is called by my name: for I have created him for my glory, I have formed him; yea, I have made him.

“I am with thee” complements “even every one that is called by my name.” “I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west” matches “bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth.” Statements comprising the chiasm all relate to the gathering of Israel in the latter days.

Verses 8 through 13 comprise a lawsuit in which the nations of the earth are to testify of the Lord’s goodness toward Israel. In verse 8, the Lord commands: “Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears.” This means spiritual blindness and spiritual deafness; the Lord issues a challenge for those able to understand spiritual things to see and hear. Compare Moses’ words to Israel preceding their entry into the Promised Land:

Yet the LORD hath not given you an heart to perceive, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto this day.23

Moses recognized the lack of spiritual sensitivity and willingness to receive guidance from the Lord among the children of Israel. During His mortal ministry, Jesus frequently stated “he that hath ears to hear, let him hear,” meaning “if you are able, understand the spiritual meaning of my words.”24

In verse 9 the Lord continues: “Let all the nations be gathered together, and let the people be assembled: who among them can declare this, and shew us former things? let them bring forth their witnesses, that they may be justified: or let them hear, and say, It is truth.” The meaning of this rhetorical question is “among all the nations of the world, is there any who have received prophecy and knowledge of spiritual things like unto you?”

In verse 10, the Lord commands Israel to acknowledge that He is their God: “Ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, and my servant whom I have chosen: that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me.” He says, “ye [Israel] are my witnesses that I am God” because of all the spiritual blessings they have received. Compare verse 12 below, which is chiastically equivalent.

Verse 11 continues the Lord’s assertion: “I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is no saviour.” Compare the words of Nephi:

And now, my brethren, I have spoken plainly that ye cannot err. And as the Lord God liveth that brought Israel up out of the land of Egypt, and gave unto Moses power that he should heal the nations after they had been bitten by the poisonous serpents,25 if they would cast their eyes unto the serpent which he did raise up before them,26 and also gave him power that he should smite the rock and the water should come forth;27 yea, behold I say unto you, that as these things are true, and as the Lord God liveth, there is none other name given under heaven save it be this Jesus Christ, of which I have spoken, whereby man can be saved (emphasis added).28

The same Being who was known to the ancients as Jehovah would come to earth, to be known as Jesus Christ, and would atone for the sins of mankind by giving up His own life.

Verse 12 summarizes: “I have declared, and have saved, and I have shewed, when there was no strange god among you: therefore ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, that I am God.” The Lord has “declared…saved, and…shewed” that He is God, except when idolatry was prevalent among the people.

Verses 10 through 12 contain a chiasm:

A: (10) Ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD,
B: and my servant whom I have chosen:
C: that ye may know and believe me, and understand
D: that I am he:
E:   before me there was no God formed,
E:   neither shall there be after me.
D: (11) I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is no saviour.
C: (12) I have declared, and have saved, and I have shewed,
B: when there was no strange god among you:
A: therefore ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, that I am God.

This chiasm describes the Lord’s status as God, what His actions have been to affirm this fact in the minds of His people, and that He holds the people responsible for this knowledge as witnesses. “My servant whom I have chosen” complements “when there was no strange god among you,” stipulating the condition under which Israel is considered the Lord’s servant.

Verse 13 states: “Yea, before the day was I am he; and there is none that can deliver out of my hand: I will work, and who shall let it?” Before the first day of the creation, the Lord existed. These statements bring to mind again Jesus’ statement in the temple: “Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.”29 The final statement in this verse, “I will work, and who shall let it?” means “If I do it, who can hinder it?”30

Verses 14 through 21 testify of blessings to be bestowed upon Israel in the future. Verse 14 foretells the miraculous end of the Babylonian captivity: “Thus saith the LORD, your redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; For your sake I have sent to Babylon, and have brought down all their nobles, and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in the ships.” “Redeemer” means “one who buys back, redeems, or ransoms;” or “one who pays the price.”31 This word defines the mission of Jesus Christ, who paid the price for our sins. He it is who would destroy Babylonian and Chaldean alike, to protect and bless the righteous.

Verse 15 summarizes: “I am the LORD, your Holy One, the creator of Israel, your King.” Structurally this verse consists of five parallel statements, repeated for emphasis. The last two statements are chiastically equivalent to “redeemer” in verse 14, attesting that He who spoke is the same who would be known as Jesus Christ, the Redeemer.

Verse 16 declares: “Thus saith the LORD, which maketh a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters.” The Lord reminds the people who it is that speaks—the same God who parted the Red Sea to provide for the miraculous escape of the children of Israel from the pursuing armies of the Egyptians.32

Verses 14 through 16 contain a chiasm:

A: (14) Thus saith the LORD,
B: your redeemer,
C: the Holy One of Israel;
D: For your sake I have sent
E: to Babylon, and have brought down all their nobles,
E: and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in the ships.
D: (15) I am the LORD,
C: your Holy One,
B: the creator of Israel, your King.
A: (16) Thus saith the LORD, which maketh a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters.

“Thus saith the LORD” is reflected in “thus saith the LORD, which maketh a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters,” attesting that the Lord who speaks is the same who rescued Israel by parting the Red Sea. The Lord would destroy Babylon and the Chaldeans to rescue and protect Israel. As their Redeemer, the Creator would ransom them by giving up His own life.

Verse 17 continues the Lord’s review of the events surrounding the miraculous crossing of the Red Sea: “Which bringeth forth the chariot and horse, the army and the power; they shall lie down together, they shall not rise: they are extinct, they are quenched as tow.” Note the use of the future tense, indicating that these events are a type to be repeated in the future, before the Second Coming. “Quenched as tow” describes the drowning of the Egyptian armies in the sea.

Verse 18 foretells the coming of Christ and how He would fulfill the Law of Moses: “Remember ye not the former things, neither consider the things of old.” The resurrected Lord declared to the Nephites: “Therefore those things which were of old time, which were under the law, in me are all fulfilled. Old things are done away, and all things have become new.”33

Verse 18 contains a chiasm recognized in the original Hebrew, here phrased to match the Hebrew construction:34

A: (18) Remember ye not
B: the former things,
B: neither the things of old
A: consider.

This chiasm centers on the “former things” and the “things of old,” meaning the Mosaic Law. Latter-day Israel is admonished: “Remember ye not,” neither “consider” “the things of old” that pertained to the law that was fulfilled with Messiah’s great and last sacrifice.

In verse 19, the Lord changes focus to blessings He would bestow upon Israel in the latter days: “Behold, I will do a new thing; now it shall spring forth; shall ye not know it? I will even make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert.” The Great Isaiah Scroll reads “Behold, I will do a new thing; and therefore it shall spring forth; shall ye not know it? I will even make a way in the wilderness, and paths in the desert.”35 The “way in the wilderness” means the strait and narrow way through the spiritual wilderness of our time, of which the pathway through the Red Sea is a type; thus, the old is a type for the “new thing” that the Lord would do. “Rivers in the desert” is a metaphor meaning that the Lord will cause the message of the gospel to come forth by revelation from on high in the latter days.36 The alternate phrase “paths in the desert” means that the strait and narrow way will be established in the world, or the spiritual desert. This statement—rendered either way—also foretells the establishment of Zion in the valleys of the mountains and the presence of living prophets among the Lord’s people. This event is the same as was foretold by Isaiah previously, in Chapter 41.37

“I will do a new thing” also reflects the Lord establishing the new and everlasting covenant. The Lord, speaking through the Prophet Joseph Smith, explains:

For all who will have a blessing at my hands shall abide the law which was appointed for that blessing, and the conditions thereof, as were instituted from before the foundation of the world.
And as pertaining to the new and everlasting covenant, it was instituted for the fulness of my glory; and he that receiveth a fulness thereof must and shall abide the law, or he shall be damned, saith the Lord God (emphasis added).38

Verse 20 continues description of the foretold event: “The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls: because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen.” The Hebrew words from which “dragons” and “owls” are translated mean “serpents”39 and “ostriches.”40 These animals metaphorically represent peoples not of the covenant who should receive the blessings of the gospel in the latter days.41 “Waters” and “rivers” in dry places mean inspiration and revelation from heaven in what had been a spiritual wasteland.42 Zion established in the wilderness represents a temporal latter-day fulfillment.43

Verse 21 continues the Lord’s description of the latter-day Zion: “This people have I formed for myself; they shall shew forth my praise.”44 The latter-day work of the Lord would be manifest in the establishment of Zion in the wilderness, upon whom He would shower down revelation and blessings. In turn, those in the latter-day Zion are required to render praise to the Lord for blessings received.

Verses 19 through 21 contain a chiasm:

A: (19) Behold, I will do a new thing;
B: now it shall spring forth; shall ye not know it?
C: I will even make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert.
D: (20) The beast of the field shall honour me,
D: the dragons and the owls:
C: because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert,
B: to give drink to my people, my chosen.
A: (21) This people have I formed for myself; they shall shew forth my praise.

“I will do a new thing” matches “this people have I formed for myself; they shall shew forth my praise.” These paired phrases describe the new and everlasting covenant to be established among the gathered of Israel in the latter days. “Spring forth” matches “give drink to my people, my chosen,” attesting that the people described would be nurtured by ongoing revelation; “a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert” matches “waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert,” meaning that the way in the wilderness, or the strait and narrow path, would be established by revelation to this people of the new covenant who would live in the desert, or spiritual and temporal wilderness. “Beast of the field” and “dragons and the owls” indicate that even those not of the covenant would benefit from the establishment of the covenant people in the wilderness.

Verses 22 through 28 foresee that in the latter-day time of restoration, some of the house of Israel would persist in apostasy. Isaiah casts the Lord’s accusation of apostate Israel as a lawsuit, presented poetically as two chiasms. Verse 22 begins: “But thou hast not called upon me, O Jacob; but thou hast been weary of me, O Israel.” They have not prayed to the Lord and have not served Him.

Verse 23 continues the accusation: “Thou hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings; neither hast thou honoured me with thy sacrifices. I have not caused thee to serve with an offering, nor wearied thee with incense.” The Hebrew word from which “small cattle” is translated means “lambs” or “young goats.”45 The apostates of the house of Israel have not kept the law nor observed the ordinances.

Verse 24 summarizes: “Thou hast bought me no sweet cane with money, neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices: but thou hast made me to serve with thy sins, thou hast wearied me with thine iniquities.”46 “Sweet cane with money” refers to the purchase of spices for the anointing oil used in sacred temple ceremonies. Israel has failed to offer acceptable sacrifices unto the Lord because of iniquity. Instead of righteously wanting to serve the Lord, Israel wants the Lord to serve her in her wickedness.

In verse 25, the Lord offers forgiveness through repentance: “I, even I, am he that blotteth out thy transgressions for mine own sake, and will not remember thy sins.” Forgiveness is made available to apostate Israel through the Atonement of the Lord Jesus Christ. As Joseph Smith stated: “We believe that through the Atonement of Christ, all mankind may be saved, by obedience to the laws and ordinances of the Gospel.”47 The Lord told His latter-day followers, confirming Isaiah’s meaning: “Behold, he who has repented of his sins, the same is forgiven, and I, the Lord, remember them no more.”48

In verse 26 the Lord pleads for wayward Israel to repent: “Put me in remembrance: let us plead together: declare thou, that thou mayest be justified.” “Declare thou” means “confess thy sins.”

In verse 27, the Lord recognizes the fall of Adam and its sinful impact upon mankind, and the effect of corrupt political and ecclesiastical leaders: “Thy first father hath sinned, and thy teachers have transgressed against me.” “Transgressed” means offending or revolting against God.49

Verse 28 describes serious consequences for the sins of the people of Israel: “Therefore I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary, and have given Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches.”50 The Lord would cease to recognize the ordinances of the “sanctuary,” meaning the temple. The Lord having “profaned the princes of the sanctuary” means He has dishonored the ministers and priests thereof, no longer recognizing their priestly authority because of the extreme apostasy of Israel. As foretold here by Isaiah, the Lord ceased to recognize the ordinances of the temple at the time of the crucifixion, symbolized by the veil of the temple being torn from top to bottom.51

 


Notes:

1. John 1:1-5.
2. See Matthew 17:5; Mark 9:7; Luke 9:35; 3 Nephi 11:7; JS-History 1:17.
3. Exodus 3:13-14.
4. F. Brown, S. Driver, and C. Briggs, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon: Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 01961-3473, 1996, Strong’s No. 3068, p. 217-218.
5. John 8:56-59.
6. See Genesis 22:16-18.
7. See Exodus 14:21-31.
8. Isaiah 8:7; 17:12-13; 28:2, 17.
9. See Isaiah 1:7, 28; 30:27, 30, 33; 33:11-12 and pertinent commentary.
10. Doctrine and Covenants 18:10.
11. See Jacob 5.
12. Jacob 5:64-65.
13. Hymns of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1985, Hymn no. 85, “How Firm a Foundation,” verses 2-5.
14. See Exodus 14:26-28.
15. See 2 Kings 17:6-8; Isaiah 7:8; 8:4; 17:2; 42:24; 49:12; 54:7.
16. See Isaiah 41:5, 9; 42:10; 45:22.
17. 3 Nephi 20:13; see verses 11-13 .
18. 3 Nephi 27:5-6.
19. 2 Chronicles 7:14.
20. See 1 Nephi 5:13.
21. See Isaiah 45:4; 65:1; Jeremiah 7:10-11, 14, 30; 25:29,34; 34:15.
22. Moroni 4:3.
23. Deuteronomy 29:4.
24. See Matthew 11:15; 13:9, 43; Mark 4:9, 23; 7:16; Luke 8:8; 14:35.
25. Numbers 21:6.
26. Numbers 21:8-9.
27. See Exodus 17:6.
28. 2 Nephi 25:20.
29. John 8:58.
30. Isaiah 43:13, footnote 13a.
31. Ernest Klein, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language: Elsevier Publishing Co., 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017, 1971, p. 623.
32. See Exodus 14:21-31.
33. 3 Nephi 12:46-47.
34. Donald W. Parry, Harmonizing Isaiah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 2001, p. 262.
35. Parry, 2001, p. 175.
36. See Isaiah 12:3; 30:25; 35:6-7; 55:1, 10-11; 58:11 and pertinent commentary.
37. See Isaiah 41:17-20 and pertinent commentary.
38. Doctrine and Covenants 132:5-6. See also Doctrine and Covenants 131:2; 132:19, 26-27, 41-42.
39. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 8577, p. 1072.
40. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 3284, p. 419.
41. See Isaiah 56:9 and pertinent commentary.
42. See Isaiah 12:3; 35:6-7; 55:10-11; 58:11.
43. See Isaiah 35:1-2 and pertinent commentary.
44. Verses 1 through 21 form a large-scale chiasm: The LORD that created thee/waters… rivers/fire, thou shalt not be burned/the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour/Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba/I give men for thee…I will bring…created…formed/ye are my witnesses/I… am the LORD/beside me there is no saviour/ye are my witnesses/I will work/Babylon, and have brought down all their nobles, and the Chaldeans/I am the LORD, your Holy One, the creator of Israel, your King/they are quenched as tow/waters…rivers/this people have I formed for myself.
45. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 7716, p. 961.
46. Verses 22 through 24 contain a chiasm: Weary of me, O Israel/sacrifices/offering/incense/sweet cane/fat/ sacrifices/thou hast wearied me.
47. Article of Faith 1:3.
48. Doctrine and Covenants 58:42.
49. Brown et al., 1996, Strong’s No. 6586, p. 833.
50. Verses 25 through 28 contain a chiasm: I…am he that blotteth out/transgressions/mine own sake/not remember/ put me in remembrance/thou mayest be justified/transgressed against me/I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary.
51. See Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45.

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